AHF (Doc Index)

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The American Health Foundation (AHF) was under the total authoritarian control of Ernst L. Wynder, one of the pioneers of tobacco research who had been a major force in establishing the dangers of smoking (with Evarts Graham), the first US surgeon to remove cancerous lungs and have patients survive..

Later at the AHF, Wynder had a faithful and talented assistant in Dietrich Hoffmann who looked after the laboratory work.

The primary funding for the AHF came from a wealthy philanthropist who organised funding over many years. {check Dana ?? Mary Lasker } However Wynder also took money from Philip Morris and its subsidiary Kraft General Foods for research relating to dietary and lifestyle cause of lung cancer. [2]

THIS IS A SPLIT ENTRY
Ernst L. Wynder
Dietrich K Hoffman
Evarts A Graham
American Health Foundation
Naylor Dana Institute
Environ. Health & Safety Council
AHF (Doc Index)

The American Health Foundation became involved in research into a number of health problems. They did not just concentrate exclusively on tobacco, although the reputation of Wynder was very much tied into the fact that he had been a pioneer in this field. First with a joint study that he conducted, using the records of a famous heart and lung surgeon Evarts A Graham, then later with his famous 'skin painting' research which involved condensing the 'tars' and chemicals out of smoke (so-called 'fractions') then painting these onto the skins of hairless mice. They were trying to identify which faction in the smoke caused tumors on the skin.

Dietrich Hoffmann, who seems to have had his feet more on the ground than the flighty Wynder, did most of this work. However this (June 1974) report from tobacco lobbyist Saul Warshaw to his boss Bill Ruder of the Ruder & Finn PR agency gives an insight into Wynder's thinking -- he wants some power players on his board.

Dr. Wynder is an extremely practical man at this point in his life. For example, it seems to me that if there were some way that he and the cigarette industry, or he and the food industry could work together and seek out common interests that go toward satisfying the desires of all sides, then I believe this would be an amenable approach for him and that he would not be totally stubborn on that point.
It also seems to me that your getting involved would be a good way to keep our pipelines open for the benefit of such clients of ours as Philip Morris.[3]

Was Wynder corrupted?

The research community has long argued that the great hero of the earlier years in identifying and fighting the tobacco industry, later seemed so compliant and supportive of the industry (while still retaining an anti-smoking position in public.

Another explanation for this apparent contradiction lies in our definition of the 'corruption of science': it does not just involve paying a scientist generously to alter his research data, or his conclusions. The cigarette companies were very sophisticated manipulators of men.

After his epidemological study with Evarts Graham, Wynder worked through the Sloan-Kettering Institute (SKI) on his second great breakthrough, the mouse skin-painting research. He was also a very personable, and a gay young Continental batchelor-scientist who quickly became a toasted celebrity among the wealthy female socialites. Eventually they provided the funding for him to establish the American Health Foundation with Dietrich Hoffmann as his laboratory director. The lofty aim of the AHF was to cure all cancers, not just those concerned with cigarettes, and over the years Wynder was feted and promoted by a gaggle of matrons fund-raisers as the genius of biomedical research.

His major backing came through Mrs Charles A Dana, and so their new research center opened in early 1975 was named the Naylor Dana Institute for Disease Prevention. It employed 80 people, but had an estimated full capacity of 120. The National Cancer Institute (NCI) had classified the AHF to receive a 'Core Grant' for three years

Over time Wynder's ego and ambitions appear to have risen at a faster rate than the AHF funding. The foundation was always expanding and perpetually short of cash -- which the corporations resolved for Wynder by making generous donations. These corporations were run by the husbands of his fund-raising group, so the two sources of funding became interlinked. The tobacco companies were quick to exploit this, giving generously to the AHF (Philip Morris gave $250,000 for five years 1991-96), and always exploiting Wynder's ego by putting him in some nominally important status-position on advisory committees, and giving him the key speaking slots at many of their open-media conferences. Wynder appears to have believed in his own generated mythology and remained convinced that he could generally outwit the companies and that eventually he would produce a safe-cigarette. He couldn't do either.

Documents & Timeline

NOTE: THIS INCLUDES TIMELINE DATA BEFORE WYNDER ESTABLISHED THE AHF ALSO:


1922 Ernst Ludwig Wynder was born in Herford, Westphalia in 1922 to Jewish parents


1938 The Wynder family escaped Nazi rule and fled to the United States, where Wynder enrolled at New York University.


1941-45 During World War II, he joined the U.S. Army'a psychological warfare unit monitoring German newscasts.


1945-50 Medical school at Washington University in St. Louis. In 1950, he received both a bachelor of science and a medical degree.


1946 He conducted an epidemiological study of smoking behavior among 146 lung cancer patients in New York City with funding from the American Cancer Society. Epidemiological studies at this time were fairly rare, and never well done. Wynder's material was an exception.


1947-51 Wynder began collaborating with his teacher, the famous lung surgeion, Evarts Graham in 1947. His study of the hospital patients in the files provided epidemiological proof that cigarettes caused cancer. (They jointly published a ground-breaking paper in the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) in 1950 - his first year out of medical school). Wynder concluded:

"From the evidence presented .. the temptation is strong to incriminate excessive smoking, and in particular cigaret smoking, over a long period as at least one important factor in the striking increase of bronchiogenic carcinoma." [1]

Graham and Wynder collected extensive data on 604 patients with lung cancer at various US hospitals. They applied statistical methods to their data, dividing the patients into categories of "moderate" or "heavy" smokers (derived from retrospective interviews of each patient's smoking behavior). They also controlled confounding factors like, age, types of tobacco use, inhalation level (which was thought to be important at this time). They also compared their dead smokers with a control group of cancer-free individuals in hospitals.

So it is fair to say that by using relatively modern techniques, Evarts Graham and Wynder proved that cigarette smoking was a factor in lung cancer. At this time it was the name of Evarts Graham that made the medical profession take notice. The conclusion was obvious: excessive cigarette smoking carried out for a long period of time (twenty years or more) was the key factor in causing the remarkably increased frequency on bronchiogeneic carcinoma. [2]


1950 May 27 The Journal of the American Medical Association published the resulting scientific report


1950 Confirmation for the Graham-Wynder claims came in the same year, 1950. Richard Doll and Bradford Hill, a celebrated physician and statistician in the UK, published a large scale survey of 709 lung cancer patients which confirmed Wynder's conclusions about cigarettes and lung cancer. Only two nonsmokers were found, leading the investigators to conclude that...

"... smoking is a factor, and an important factor, in the production of carcinoma of the lungs. Only one lung cancer patient in 200 was a non-smoker, as compared with one in 22 among the controls." (Furthermore, the researchers found ample evidence of dose-response:)

"The risk of developing carcinoma of the lungs increases steadily as the amount smoked increases … it may be approximately 50 times as great among those who smoke 25 or more cigarettes a day as among non-smokers."[3]

1954 ???/E A mouse-skin experiment performed in the 1950's by Dr. Wynder and Dr. Evarts A. Graham used 81 mice of an inbred strain which did not develop spontaneous skin cancers. They were obtained by the Roscoe B. Jackson Memorial Laboratory, headed by Dr. Clarence C. Little, a noted researcher in cancer genetics and the part-time director of the Tobacco Industries Research Council (TIRC). The smoke from burning cigarettes was condensed to a thick tar which was thinned with acetone (known not to have any carcinogenic effects). After approximately 71 weeks (according to Graham, this was the equivalent to 30 to 50 years of human smoking) 36 mice developed skin tumors. However, the evidence was too inconclusive to satisfy either pro or con in the cigarette controversy. Humans get tobacco smoke into their lungs; not thick, concentrated, gummy tobacco tars. [4]


1957 Ironically, Evarts A Graham was a heavy smoker, and this year he died of lung-cancer.


1950s - 60s Wynder worked at Sloan-Kettering Institute for Cancer Research (SKI) in the 1950s where he met Dietrich Hoffman and they began a forty year tobacco research partnership. Doctors Wynder and Hoffmann worked at the center until a conflict with the institute's head, Frank Horsfall, Jr., over their budgets and findings tied to grants from the tobacco industry. In 1969, Doctors Wynder and Hoffman left the institute to launch the American Health Foundation.



1969 Wynder founded the American Health Foundation (AHF).



1972 Wynder founded the academic journal Preventive Medicine and served as the founding editor.


1974 June report from tobacco lobbyist Saul Warshaw to his boss Bill Ruder of the Ruder & Finn PR agency gives an insight into Wynder's thinking -- he wants some power players on his board.

Dr. Wynder is an extremely practical man at this point in his life. For example, it seems to me that if there were some way that he and the cigarette industry, or he and the food industry could work together and seek out common interests that go toward satisfying the desires of all sides, then I believe this would be an amenable approach for him and that he would not be totally stubborn on that point.
It also seems to me that your getting involved would be a good way to keep our pipelines open for the benefit of such clients of ours as Philip Morris.[4]


1974 Nov 14 Letter from Robert B Seligman (Director of Commercial Development, Tobacco Products at Philip Morris) to David L Davies (Executive Vice President, American Health Foundation) "formally" accepting their budget proposal to research a cigarette with lower biological activity. [5]


1974 Nov l A letter from David L Davies of AHF to Clifford Henry Goldsmith, President of Philip Morris, thanking him for $20,000 check. [6]


1974 Dec 13 Confidential letter from David L Davies (Executive Vice President, American Health Foundation) to Robert Seligman (PM Inc.)

"The American Health Foundation requests an advance payment for its 1975 Research Project entitled "Towards a Cigarette with Lower Biological Activity: Model Studies," of $68,148.75." [7]


1975 Dec 4 Philip Morris are sending a check for $70,000 to the American Health Foundation. [8]


1976 Jan 6 The chief executive manipulator at Philip Morris, Hamish Maxwell, then the CEO of Philip Morris International, wrote to his superior Hugh Cullman, who is nominally in charge of the international operations.

I propose Philip Morris Europe forthwith contribute $50,000 to the AMERICAN HEALTH FOUNDATION, as suggested in Paragraph 2, Page 4 of Max Hausermann's memorandum to Staffan Gunnarsson of December 16th; Cliff Goldsmith concurs. May we discuss.

It was marked "Status -- paid". [9]

[Staffan Gunnarsson is the Director of Philip Morris in Germany. Cliff Goldsmith was a PM New York executive for the international business, and Max Hausermann ran PM's laboratories in Neuchatel, Switzerland (called FTR). Philip Morris did real research work in Switzerland and at INBIFO in Cologne, Germany, when they couldn't risk doing it in the USA (It might be leaked, or later 'discovered' in a US court case). This exchange means that Wynder was doing work for them in Germany. These PM executives are all involved with the scientific research outside the USA.]

1975 Sep 3Francis JC Roe and Peter N Lee, both lifetime tobacco lobbyists from the UK, visited New York and the new American Health Foundation, Naylor Dana Institute, then reported (4 pages) to British American Tobacco. [10]


1976 /E Wynder's AHF has submitted a proposal to the Germany Research Council to do:

  • two studies in the field of experimental tumor research
  • two studies on epdemiological collections
  • one study on metabolism.

The AHF would also report to the GRC on ...

  • Corresponding research projects in the United States
  • Provide regular reports on the total programs of the Naylor Dana Institute on tumor promoting compounds in tobacco smoke

The Research Council discussed the offer, reduced substantially the original cost estimates and approved. The cost over 3 years was 1.9 million Deutschmark. [11]

There appears to be a second part to this original proposal in Dec 1975.. This is the original version: [12]

1976 Dec 13The lawyer Edwin Jacob (Jacob & Medinger) which was the law firm for RJ Reynolds on all its secret snd scientific dealings, has prepared a report on all the known German research activities. RJ Reynolds have a German subsidiary and the company has some clout in the German industry. He makes these points:

  • They are trying to produce a 'safe cigarette" which implies that "current cigarettes are unsafe."
  • We strenuously object to a series of projects to be undertaken by Dr Ernst Wynder due to the geographical situation. (They wanted to "exclude Wynder as a candidate for research")
  • The Center for Tobacco Research (CTR) in the US is currently sponsoring the research of Dr Arthur Furst who is studying "Intertracheal instillation" (presumable the painting of smoke tar condensates inside the throat of rats). Jacob says that this is not the same as whole fresh smoke -- and that (Freddy) Homburger found no "gross emphysematous lesions" and therefore this is not a valid study.
  • (He has many more objections in the same vein.)
  • Professor Gothard Schettler is also doing a study and he is "a long-standing and outspoken opponent of smoking and, therefore any research undertaken by him would likely be tainted by his biased viewpoint.
  • Our objections to the Wynder Projects are very strong. It deals with a comparison of American tobacco products and their health consequences on American smokers by an American researcher who is avowedly anti-tobacco. RJ Reynolds would take a very dim view of anyone supporting Dr Wynder's research. (It places) the American industry in a potentially embarrassing situation. [13]

1978 June 6 Robert Seligman of Philip Morris has written to the AHF to formally drop their contract work on scavenger reactions of NOx. (nitrous oxides). [14]


1979 Apr Richard B Karlberg at the AHF has written to Klaus Brunneman who has left the AHF and is now employed at the German/Swiss research facility owned by Philip Morris in Neuchatel. He is objecting to some of Brunneman's research on nitrosamines being used in a Philip Morris paper without Dietrich Hoffman first getting to view it. Brunneman tells him that the material is from a local swiss study. [15] [16]


1980/E Philip Morris is sponsoring the AHF in the "Q-study". Ilse Hoffman (probably Dietrich Hoffman's wife) is the Research coordinator. [17]


1980 Dec 19Philip Morris and the AHF have entered into a contract to conduct research on the "Selective Reduction of Tobacco Specific N-Nitrosamines from Cigarette Smoke." [[18]


1982 Feb 18 Thomas S Osdene, VP Science and R&D at Philip Morris is sending a quarterly check of $65,000 to the American Health Foundation. Dietrich Hoffman is to study "Bioassays and Chemical Analysis of Tobacco Smoke from Three Experimental Cigarettes" at the Naylor Dana Institute. Not at the American Health Foundation - even though it was the AHF which was funded. The total project cost PM committed to was $650,000 payable in 10 quarterly payments from April 1 1982. [19] [20]


1983 July 13-19 Jet Lincoln (Planning Aide to Joe Cullman, Chm of PM) has written to Hugh Cullman (CEO of PM International) advocating a study to 'parallel' [and therefore counter] the American Cancer Society's new prospective study on smoking and premature mortality, which has been recruiting a million men since September 1982.

Jet Lincoln doesn't trust the Council for Tobacco Research and pathologist Sheldon C Sommers ("Charlie" - then CTR SAB Chairman) to run this counter-study. He wants Philip Morris to do it.

My thought is to parallel the new ACS study, including all or at least most of their questionnaire, but adding to it additional questions we believe have a predictive value for premature mortality, including questions as close as we can come to the Vaillant [Note: a Dec ;79 smoking/health study published in the New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM)] and Caroline B Thomas [Johns Hopkins Uni] discriminators. [21] [22]

By having our own study, we will be able to look at cross tabulations of their questions that they either do not run, or do not choose to publish, and also to fold the responses to our added questions into the overall analysis.

The cost of an exact replication would be rather high since millions of personal interviews are involved. One way to hold down the cost would be to use Home Testing Institute and aim for a final sample of 100,000 instead of a million. I believe our smaller sample would still yield statistically sound figures with regard to total mortality.

The main thing we would lose would be the ability to publish separate statistics for the mortality from minor causes of disease. For your information, I am attaching a copy of the new ACS questionnaire . It has some questions in it that may help us.

On the other hand, they will probably be more careful to control the alcohol usage and this is very likely to make us look worse. Additionally, it seems highly probable to me that most of the individuals who have the greatest will to live long lives have abandoned smoking. [23] [See questionairre from the same file] [24]

[Note: Cullman must have passed this research proposal on to Shep Pollack the President of the domestic PM USA company, who then sent it on to Thomas Osdene [PM's chief science-advisory executive] [25]

Osdene then replies:

I am very much in favor of this study recognizing that it would be rather expensive; nevertheless, it would be a very good way of checking the American Cancer Association's results. [Note: the term 'checking' is ambiguous -- it can mean 'countering' or 'confirming.']

Implicit in this, one must consider that the future results may have to be protected [meaning 'shielded from legal discover'] and therefore I would suggest if this study were to be undertaken, it would be under the control of our legal advisors. Technically, it would be very worthwhile.

I would strongly advise against sponsoring this through the CTR and believe that, for example, Dr. Wynder (AHF) or Dr. Carl Seltzer (Harvard) might be able to do this. It must be noted that if the number to be surveyed is in the order of 100,000 people the study would have to be conducted two to three times as long as the 1,000,000 subject study of the American Cancer Association. [26]

[Note: While the life-long systematic corruption of Carl Seltzer is easily demonstrated, the involvement of Dr Ernest Wynder of the American Health Foundation as an alternative to Seltzer has been disputed. If he was corrupted by this time, Wynder's involvement with the industry may have been more closely concealed because of his earlier reputation in discovering the cigarette/lung-cancer links as a student, and also for his vocal support of 'safer cigarette' research.
Many members and socialite donors to his AHF would also have counted themselves as zealous anti-smokers, not given to compromise. So Wynder had a lot to lose if it became known that he was doing dubious research for the tobacco industry.
However, the most you can say is that this correspondence suggests (but does not prove) that by 1983 Wynder had become so dependant on the tobacco industry funding (and ameniable to their demands) that they were willing to trust him to conceal adverse findings.]

1986 Jun 12 Thomas Osdene has sent the AHF a $43,723 check (the 4th and final payment) of a grant to investigate "Role of Diet in Cancers of the Lung, Oral Cavity and Bladder." This was later extended into a four year project under the same terms (nearly a million dollars). Later they added $25,000 every six months for unspecified Epidemiological research. [27] [28]

[The idea that lung cancer could be caused by a bad diet was never really considered seriously outside the reach of researchers receiving tobacco industry funds. However, the newspapers enjoyed running scare stories of this kind.]

1987 Nov 2 RJ Reynolds has signed an agreement with the Naylor Dana Institute, which is the socialite-funding organisation behind the American Health Foundation. This agreement is a confidentiality contract giving the AHF access to the RJR development of the Premier cigarette, the first 'nicotine delivery system' without burning tobacco.

RJ Reynolds worked on the Eclipse and Premier non-tobacco cigarettes for many years. They convinced themselves that this was the solution to the problem of passive smoking, while still keeping their customers addicted to nicotine. It was a form of "safer cigarette" so Wynder would have welcomed being involved. However the Premier cigarette, when released, tasted like burning rubber tyres, or the smog from a garbage dump. So it was not a success. [29]


1988 Sept 15 Record of a Center for Indoor Air Research (CIAR) Board of Directors meeting. We have two handwritten records of the same meeting (this is a consolidation) They have reviewed:

  • Delbert Eatough's proposal on airline testing
  • the Viren-Laird study (on Hirayama)
  • The Spitzer/McGill/Rockefeller University study
  • Conference (proposals): a) Claude Bieva's Brussels IAQ conference; b) Roger Perry's Imperial College London, "Ambient Air conference"; c) Argentina; (unknown) d) Tokyo; (unknown)
  • Current Project Review:
    • E Lee Husting has asked for another $25,000 and 4 months from the CTR. He has talked with lawyer Mary Ward and Guy Oldaker (RJR/CIAR) and asked for $10,000. They question: Is he getting money from both the CTR and the CIAR ?? Max Eisenberg [temporary director] will go to Winston-Salem to determine whether Husting should get the extra $25,000.
    • Sol DiNardi. Arrange time to meet with Max Eisenberg re manuscript. "Max should attempt to persuade DiNardi to accept valid comments from (lawyers) Shook Hardy & Bacon."Do we need to do anything also?
          DiNardi has data comparing different pieces of equipment which were taken from 49 public locations. He never had callibration data.     Lawyer John Rupp has revised DiNardi's first paper on comparative tables ("It is retrievable"), and checked his second ("not retrievable" due to DiNardi's resistance to SH&B changes.)
      [They appear to be saying that since DiNardi hasn't made the changes that the lawyers demand his research paper is useless.]
          [We need him to] complete the second manuscript and then get the raw data in the hands of someone else. Bob Pages and Don Hoel (Not Max E) will go out and look at his data.
      The CIAR should also take an accouning of his equipment (the industry would have paid for it). Charlie Green firmly rejects the notion of any future financial involvement with DiNardi.
    • Scandinavian Airline Services (SAS) Project. The project started today, and everything seems to be in shape. Rupp has talked with HER [ Helmut Reif of FTR] on Tuesday and all is in good shape. SAS is being very helpful, and the video (which explains the tests) was well received by the cabin crew."All on track.
      The 'Contract' was signed [quotes indicate a verbal agreement only - contract probably with the TNO Dutch laboratories). (The) consultants John Lephardt and John W Drake (working with PMI's Mary Pottorff) have no contract yet. Who contracts with Torbjorn Malmfors (Sweden's EGIL consultant) Part of money has come from CIAR budget.
          What are they going to do? Take the report from TNO and prepare an article for publication (with TNO as co-authors) but including a Heath Assessment" (The consultants are to prepare a "qualitative" risk assessment.). The final report will be overseen by Helmut Gaisch (PM/FTR), Guy Oldaker (RJR) and TNO; the consultants will then prepare a full-blown journal article incorporating the TNO report.
          We must identify conferences at which the consultants may release the results (possibly) a presentation at the Bieva/Brussels IAQ conference
    • Max Eisenberg $500,000 study -- all to be written up.
  • Center for Indoor Air Research (CIAR) and a fulltime Executive Director.
    They have rented 2200 sq ft of space in Linthincum near BWI. They have an administrative assistant and receptionist on board, also a local bank and an accounting firm. Furniture and phones have been ordered, also IBM computers and software. They are now interviewing scientists.
        Max Eisenberg feels it is critical to have a Scientific Advisory Board (SAB), and he would like to attract some sponsors who are not corporate members of the tobacco industry... with at least one corporation having a seat on the board (This "adds credibility and makes attracting SAB members and scientists easier.") John Rupp has suggested Jim Woods' ex company Honeywell. [Honeywell had an air-conditioning division, and Jim Woods worked on the side as a consultant to the tobacco industry while acting as a standard-setter for ventilation.]
  • Indoor Air Pollution Advisory Group (IAPAG)
    Tom Osdene will talk to Dietrich Hoffman or Ernst Wynder whether they will publish their hamster studies.
    [Hoffman and Wynder of the American Health Foundation 'cooperated' with the tobacco industry in their later years, but (with a few minor exceptions) they are not generally linked to the organisation of outright corrupt scientists who worked behind the front of the IAPAG (Indoor Air Pollution Advisory Group)]
  • ACVA ETS Measurements.{Gray Robertson's fake airtesting company, later known as HBI]
    • $47,000 for foliage study [unknown]
    • $440 per site for 150=250 per year to measure nicotine, Particles, Carbon monoxide and dioxide. CIAR will not fund.
  • Ragnar Rylander Conference Proposal - needs more fomality. Tom Osdene does not like the list of prospective participants. The CIAR will sponsor and publish monographs.
    [Rylander ran many pseudo-conferences for the tobacco industry where the industry controlled the funding, the speakers, the participants, and then edited and published the proceedings. He was as crooked as they come.] [30]

  • 1990 Feb 22NJ Haley, the Assoc. Chief of Clinical Biochemistry at the AHF has met Thomas S Osdene of Philip Morris at a recent Toxicology Forum meeting. This note tells him that some of their preliminary results on Diet and Lung Cancer has suggested one risk factor is low serum iron levels. The most interesting comment in the letter was the revelation that Osdene's companions at the forum were in-house lobbyist, Mayada Logue and the corrupt Scandinavian from the Karolinska Institute, Ragnar Rylander. [31]


    1990 Aug 8 Richard B Karlberg, the financial administrator at the American Health Foundation is receiving a Philip Morris check for $43,723 which is a quarterly payment on a five year grant for AHF research project "Role of Diet in Cancers of the Lung, Oral Cavity and Bladder". Thomas Osden, VP Science and Technology at Philip Morris is handling the payment [This is $175,895 pa or $874,475 overall] [http://industrydocuments.library.ucsf.edu/tobacco/docs/rpjv0018>

    [Note that the name given to research often camoflaged what work was actually being done. It is hard to known whether this research into diet and lung-cancer was legitimate on not. Such studies help Philip Morris maintain their claim that the science wasn't settled, and that lung and mouth cancers are caused by things other than cigarette smoke.]

    1990 Sep Another research proposal sent to Kraft-General foods for research on dietary fats. The proposal spells out the size of the American Health Foundation: It is now:

    • 20 years old
    • has a staff of 250 and an annual budget in excess of $15 million
    • has grants from the National Institutes of Health and American Cancer Society.
    • publishes 125 articles in peer review journals annually

    It has created a subsidiary, the Environmental Health and Safety Council (EHSC) to research environmental chemical carcinogens. This program has a three parts:

    - They want $25,000 from Kraft General Foods to become a member.
    - Also $80,000 support for the employment of a nutritionist/spokesman and staff
    - Also $75,000 (of $130,000 total budget) to help defray education costs. [32]
    {There are elements of black-mail in these approaches. The AHF know that companies like this need to be able to boast that they fund research, and are members of organisations like the AHF. The coercion goes two ways: The food and tobacco consortiums also know that the AHF can't afford to drop adverse health findings on their donors, without adequate warning and PR to soften the media response.]

    1991 Jan 7 PM is setting up hidden grant to Ernest Wynder's American Health Fund. PM's head of Corporate Affairs, lawyer Steve Parrish has asked Science Director Thomas S Osdene to call Robert McVicar and talk to him about the possibility of KGF Foundation money for AHF ("He wanted $200,000 + $50,000 epi or preferably $225,000 + $50,000") Philip Morris owned Kraft General Foods, and the KGF Foundation was a tax-free way to fund some activities without the cigarette company being openly involved.] Osdene called when McVicar was unavailable -- then McVicar was to call back. These are Osdene's detailed Diary notes of the call.

    Wednesday June 9 91
    2.00pm Received call from Bob McVicar KGF Foundation. Talked re AHF financial support (a) $225,000/year for 5 years - study of nutrition & cancer - ongoing project AND (b) $50,000 unrestricted money to support epidemiology.
    McVicar asked what paper work we had regarding the above. Told him we would let him know. If nothing, talk to AHF and ask them to submit one page letter and send to McVicar.
    We said we would follow up. checked file - found 20+ page proposal
    2.20pm Called [[Richard Karlberg}Dick Klarberg]] at AHF and asked him to write a separate grant application to McV. Said he would do it today.
    [33].

    [Note how easy it is for the cigarette company to hide its involvement: without these diary notes, we would have no idea that such directions had been given. The letter to the AHF was sent a week later, with the name McVicker mis-spelled phonetically and no mention of Philip Morris or anything to do with tobacco.] [34]

    1994 May The AHF is analysing cigarettes sent to them by an ABC TV program. The ABC's director, Walt Bogdanich, believes they are adding nicotine to the reconstituted tobacco sheet during manufacture ... with the implication that they were 'spiking' cigarettes to make them more addictive. (They didn't need to do this, they were addictive enough without spiking)

    This ended up in the Feb 1995 court case, Philip Morris v ABC (However the cigarettes analysed here were from RJ Reynolds and the report was on "Nicotine Content of Commercial US Cigarettes) [35]


    1999 July 14 Wynder died from thyroid cancer.


    References

    1. Wynder EL, Graham EA. Tobacco smoking as a possible etiologic factor in bronchogenic carcinoma . JAMA 143 :336-338 (1950).
    2. Graham EA. Primary cancer of the lung with special consideration of its etiology. Bull NY Acad Med 1951 May
    3. Doll R, Hill AB. Smoking and cancer of the lung. Br Med J 1950;2:739-748 (1950).
    4. Anne Landman, Donald G. Cooley Smoke Without Fear (1954): The Mouse-skin Experiments, pg 13, Tobacco.org, accessed December 2009