Zero Tolerance Policies
Zero Tolerance Policies are tough discipline policies used in schools that are controversial for their disparate application to students of different races, with black, Latino, and Native American students being punished more than whites and Asians. Also at issue are critiques that zero tolerance policies are ineffective at improving school discipline and, moreover, at educating students. Much of the controversy focuses on the use of school suspensions. Some hold zero tolerance policies to blame for the "school-to-prison pipeline."
Articles and resources
Related SourceWatch articles
- Daniel J. Losen and Russell Skiba, "Suspended Education: Urban Middle Schools in Crisis," Southern Poverty Law Center.
- Russell J. Skiba, Megan Trachok, Choong-Geun Chung, Timberly Baker, Adam Sheya, and Robin Hughes, "Where Should We Intervene? Contributions of Behavior, Student, and School Characteristics to Suspension and Expulsion," Indiana University.
- Daniel Losen, Cheri Hodson, Michael A. Keith II, Katrina Morrison, and Shakti Belway, "Are We Closing the School Discipline Gap?," The Center for Civil Rights Remedies, February 2015.
- Carly Berwick, "Zeroing out Zero Tolerance," The Atlantic, March 17, 2015.
- Joanne W. Golann, "The Paradox of Success at a No-Excuses School," Sociology of Education, Vol 8, No 2, April 2015, 103-119.
- "Joint "Dear Colleague" Letter," U.S. Department of Justice Civil Rights Division and U.S. Department of Education Office for Civil Rights, January 8, 2014.
- Jacob Kang-Brown, Jennifer Trone, Jennifer Fratello, and Tarika Daftary-Kapur, "A Generation Later: What We’ve Learned about Zero Tolerance in Schools," Vera Institute of Justice, December 2013.
- Christopher Boccanfuso and Megan Kuhfeld, "Multiple Responses, Promising Results: Evidence-Based Nonpunitive Alternatives to Zero Tolerance," Research to Results Child Trends, March 2011.
- Daniel J. Losen, "Discipline Policies, Successful Schools, and Racial Justice," The Civil Rights Project/Proyecto Derechos Civiles at UCLA], October 2011.
- "Are Zero Tolerance Policies Effective in the Schools? An Evidentiary Review and Recommendations," American Psychological Association Zero Tolerance Task Force, American Psychologist, December 2008.