Turkmenistan-Afghanistan-Pakistan-India Gas Pipeline

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This article is part of the Global Fossil Infrastructure Tracker, a project of Global Energy Monitor and the Center for Media and Democracy.

Turkmenistan–Afghanistan–Pakistan–India Pipeline (TAPI) is a proposed pipeline delivering gas from Turkmenistan to India via Afghanistan and Pakistan.[1]


The TAPI pipeline will begin in Turkmenistan and travel through Afghanistan to reach Pakistan and India. It will cross the cities of Herat and Kandahar in Afghanistan towards Pakistan, and cross the cities of Quetta and Multan in Pakistan towards its final destination, the Indian town of Fazilka, which is located on the Pakistan-India border in the state of Punjab.

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Project Details

  • Operator: Turkmengaz
  • Proposed capacity: 33 billion cubic meters per year
  • Current capacity:
  • Length: 1,814 km / 1,127 mi
  • Status: Construction
  • Start Year: 2020


The TAPI Project was originally conceived in the 1990s with a view to monetize Turkmenistan’s gas reserves through gas exports to Afghanistan and Pakistan, and, potentially to India. In March 2003, India was invited to join the Project.[2]

In 2012, the governments of Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan and India formally agreed to build the transnational pipeline to supply approximately 30 billion cubic meters per year of Turkmen natural gas to India. Kandahar and Herat provinces will be the host provinces of the TAPI pipeline gas project as they would cover over 735 kilometers of Afghanistan - almost 44 percent of the pipeline. Afghanistan would earn a total of $400 million per year by way of a "transit" fee.[3]

In 2013, Turkmengaz, Afghan Gas Enterprise, Interstate Gas Service, and GAIL were nominated as shareholders by their respective countries to promote and invest in the pipeline project.[1]

In 2016, the four countries involved in the pipeline project signed an initial investment agreement to develop the TAPI. The Project will be owned by a special purpose consortium company, TPCL, which was established in November of 2014 by Turkmengaz (Turkmenistan), Afghan Gas Enterprise (Afghanistan), Interstate Gas Service (Pakistan) and GAIL (India) to develop the $7.5bn project. Turkmengaz is the majority shareholder in TPCL.[2] [4][1] Pakistan and Turkmenistan have signed the finalized version of the Host Government Agreement (HGA) for the Turkmenistan Afghanistan Pakistan India (TAPI) pipeline.[5] In September 2019 it was reported that Turkmenistan and Pakistan had agreed to reach financial closure on the project in early 2020.[6]


The 1,814 kilometer, 56-inch diameter, transnational TAPI natural gas pipeline will deliver gas from the Galkynysh gas field in Turkmenistan to Afghanistan, Pakistan and India. The pipeline will begin with 27 billion cubic meters of gas per year and will increase to 33 billion cubic meters of gas per year after the first year of operation. The pipeline is currently scheduled to go into operation in 2020.[1]

There are conflicting reports about the status of the Turkmen section of the pipeline. In February 2018 leaders from the four countries celebrated the completion of the Turkmen section of the pipeline.[7] However in April 2019 the TAPI Pipeline company was still ordering a length of pipe that corresponded with the length of the Turkmen section of the pipeline, suggesting that it had yet to be built.[8]

The Afghan section of the pipeline was reportedly under construction as of 2018.[5] Construction of the Pakistani section was scheduled to start in October 2019.[9]

Articles and resources


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Turkmenistan–Afghanistan–Pakistan–India Pipeline, Hydrocarbons Technology, accessed April, 2018
  2. 2.0 2.1 Turkmenistan- Afghanistan – Pakistan-India TAPI Pipeline, Ministry of Mines and Petroleum - Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, accessed April, 2018
  3. TAPI Gas Pipeline Agreement Sealed, Tolo News, May 23, 2012
  4. Initial investment agreement for TAPI pipeline signed, The Economic Times, March 4, 2016
  5. 5.0 5.1 Pakistan, Turkmenistan sign pact for TAPI pipeline, Kallanish Energy, Mar. 15, 2019
  6. https://fp.brecorder.com/2019/09/20190904515297/ TAPI gas project: Turkmenistan, Pakistan agree to end financial closure in early 2020], Business Recorder, Sep. 4, 2019
  7. Turkmen section of trans-Afghanistan gas pipeline completed, Euronews, February 28, 2018
  8. Another Turkmen Pipe Mystery, Radio Free Europe, Apr. 4, 2019
  9. Pakistan-Turkmenistan to discuss TAPI gas pipeline groundbreaking in August, Business Recorder, Jul. 8, 2019

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