Talk:Alternatives to coal in Turkey

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Geothermal CO2 Is there a fix for geothermal cO2?

Natural gas

Don't quite understand page 264 about oligopolies and BOTAŞ. Does it mean gas-fired electric does not compensate for variations in solar? Does it apply after end 2018?

Moved gas out of text to here as because says " It is possible to offset the shortage of natural gas in the power generation sector with hydro power during the wet season, however, gas shortages typically occur when the season is dry and insufficient renewable energy, which is strongly supported by the government, is produced to offset the natural gas shortfall."

If in future there are articles on fossil fuels by country the below might be useful for that.

Natural gas

Gas currently generates a third of Turkey's electricity.[1] As the country has no natural gas fields Turkey imports about 50 billion cubic metres (bcm) annually, which worsens its current account deficit. 40bcm of that is supplied via pipelines under long-term oil-linked contracts with Russia, Iran and Azerbaijan. However 20bcm of these contracts mature by 2025 and Turkey is rapidly expanding its facilities for importing liquefied natural gas (LNG), thus obtaining cheaper gas and security of supply[2] by becoming part of the global gas market.[3][4]

TETAŞ and EÜAŞ produce approximately 40% thus electricity is an oligopoly market. Despite the governments aim to reduce the share of electricity generated by gas to 30%,[5] it guarantees the production of some gas power plants.[6] As much electricity is produced from gas its price has tended to follow the gas price.[7]

Nevertheless, although Turkey's gas-fired power plants are much cleaner and emit less than half the CO2 per GWh of its coal-fired plants, that CO2 and gas distribution leakage in Turkey also contributes to global warming.[8] Also, in part due to increased use of gas for residential heating as the distribution network expands further, Turkey's future gas import bills are difficult to predict.

  1. "Domestic coal reserves to promote Turkish economic growth," Daily Sabah, June 24, 2017
  2. Anders Norlen, "Turkey’s floating LNG imports deliver cheaper gas and energy security," Energy Insights by McKinsey, April 2017.
  3. "Turkey's energy stock market to start trading natural gas in April," Daily Sabah, October 2017.
  4. Abache Abreu, "Dawn of a global commodity: LNG," Platts, September 2017.
  5. "Turkish natural gas demand decline," Oxford Energy Forum, AUGUST 2017: Issue 110
  6. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Özdurak1&Ulusoy
  7. "A Time-Varying VAR Investigation of the Relationship Among Electricity Fossil Fuel Prices and Exchange Rate in Turkey," SSRN, September 2017.
  8. Burcin Atilgan and Adisa Azapagic, "Life cycle environmental impacts of electricity from fossil fuels in Turkey," Journal of Cleaner Production, November 1, 2015.