Survival International

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Survival (not related to Survivors International) "is the only international organisation supporting tribal peoples worldwide. It was founded in 1969 after an article by Norman Lewis in the UK's Sunday Times highlighted the massacres, land thefts and genocide taking place in Brazilian Amazonia. Like many modern atrocities, the racist oppression of Brazil's Indians took place in the name of 'economic growth'." [1]


Writing in 2009, Edwin Wilmsen notes:

"Agencies with professed humanitarian motives, such as Survival International (SI), by rooting their concern – and persuading their clients – to preserve ‘Bushman’ culture in false essentialist premises, a process Mullings (2004: 4) calls ‘racialization from below,’ subvert efforts to address issues of San inequality and poverty in realistic political terms. These agencies too often adopt self-defeating programmes, which do little other than compromise the position of the people they wish to help (cf. Saugestad 2001)." [2]




Resources and articles

Related Sourcewatch articles


  1. About, Survival International, accessed April 14, 2008.
  2. Edwin Wilmsen, “To See Ourselves as We Need to See Us: Ethnography's Primitive Turn in the Cold War Years,” (pdf) Critical African Studies, 1, 2009, p.38.