Luis M Ferrer
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Luis Ferrer was an architectural lecturer at the University of Santo Tomas and the Director of Health Intrastructure Services with the Philippines Ministry of Health, at the time he was recruited to joint the Asian WhiteCoats working for the tobacco industry. He appears to have provided the industry with access to the University conference facilities, since the university's name features in many later documents.
Documents & Timeline
|This is only a small selection of some revealing documents showing the motivations and organisation of the Asian WhiteCoats program by the lawyers Covington & Burling (C&B) for the tobacco industry. |
The full document listing is at Asian WhiteCoats.
1989 Jan At the instigation of Philip Morris, there has been a meeting in January 1989 between Covington & Burling lawyer John Rupp and John Dollisson (PM HK), with Ernest Pepples (B&W) and other company representatives, where the decision was tentatively made to recruit Asian WhiteCoats. This was an attempt to duplicate Philip Morris's successful recruitments and training of compliant scientists in Europe. Pepples later complained
My recollection from the initial meeting in Philip Morris' Hong Kong office is that I said B&W (the US subsidiary of BAT) would participate in the project if Japan Tobacco Inc. and RJ Reynolds and possibly others joined the effort. In that regard I consider the participation of Japan Tobacco Inc. as a sine qua non for success.
See later material http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/sfp33f00/pdf
|Following this meeting John Rupp was sent to Asia accompanied by George Leslie, the freelance organiser of the ARIA group and the IAI conference operations.|
1989 Feb 25 John Rupp of Covington & Burling's report on a trip through Asia with George Leslie (of both the ARIA and AIA groups) to recruit Asian WhiteCoats. He lists the main points:
- Dr Ben Reverente (a $600 a day Filpino) introduced them to Dr Malinee Wongphanich (Malaysian), the current president of the Asian Association of Occupational Health (AAOH). (Reverente became the next AAOH president)
- He offered the name of a friend, Professor Lina Somera, from the College of Public Health, Uni of the Philippines.
- Dr Malinee Wongphanich was wary, but she assisted them in many ways. (She was at Mahidol Uni)
- Professor Fengsheng He, from the Chinese Academy of Preventive Medicine, Beijing. She is the most eminent toxicologist in China and her published work is recognized internationally.
- Dr Marilyn Go is a medically qualified pediatrician with an interest in research. She is the wife of Dr. William Go, a surgeon at Valenzuela Hospital, Philippines
- Dr Jung Koo Roh ..."who founded toxicology in Korea and runs a team of approximately 40 scientists at the only contract toxicology center in Asia outside of Japan. On loan to KRICT (Korean tobacco research institute)"
- Dr Alun McIntyre, Director, Consultants in Environmental Sciences (Asia) Ltd. (CES), a consulting firm consisting of four environmental scientists assisted by about 20 engineers. His normal daily consulting fee is HK$800. He gave us the name of Dr Liao, whom he engages for some of his projects.
- Dr Sarah Liao started her consulting firm (EHS Consultancy Ltd) last year and has a staff of 5. She she is married to the Postmaster General in Hong Kong and well-connected politically; she is also a close personal friend of (Dr) Linda C. Koo. (Consulting fees also HK$800 per day)
- Dr Linda Koo, ('Americanized') She is at the University of Hong Kong, and said to be the most eminent pollution epidemiologist in Asia. She declined to join them at this time. (She did later) http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/ogu07a99/pdf
1989 Apr 10 David Billings (John Rupp's associate at C&B) reports on progress of the Asian ETS consultant's recruitment project. He is travelling with George Leslie of ARIA. This report details the progress of the recruitment project in the various countries and outlines the field of interest of those recruited. They have already set up the two-day Bangkok training workshop. The are now finding new scientists willing to take the tobacco industry's money.
- Yoon Shin Kim is a prized recruit from Korea (Environmental Chemist, Associate Professor of Environmental Sciences, College of Medicine, Hanyang University in Korea.)
- Sarah Liao will act as an intermediary and will launder the payments made to Linda C. Koo. http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/uzf87e00/pdf
|They had a major problem with their recruits; they were to be promoted as experts air-conditioning systems, Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) and the health-related problems of Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS), but with few exceptions, none of them knew more than the basics. So they needed to be trained.|
1989 May 25 Lawyer/recruiter John Rupp of Covington & Burling is reporting to representative of the three main cigarette companies involved in funding the project:
As noted in David's April 10 memorandum, we have invited the scientists whom we have recruited to a training session in Bangkok on June 22 and 23. The assignment that we have given the scientists in anticipation of that meeting is to read, and to become thoroughly familiar with, all of the ETS scientific publications within their fields of expertise.
Our goal is to leave the meeting on June 22 and 23 with a core group of scientists who are fully trained on the relevant issues and have developed sufficient enthusiasm to be prepared to make a real contribution -- by way of writing articles, participating on our behalf at scientific meetings, joining industry people at briefings of government officials and so forth.
This far we have recruited ten scientists --
- Professor Ogle,(Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Hong Kong.)
- Professor Bacon-Shone, (Member of HK's Central Policy Unit.
- [Note: He was also on the McGill University ETS Symposium list.]
- Dr Wongphanich, (Occupational Health, Faculty of Public Health, Mahidol University, Thailand)
- Dr Ben Reverente (Occ. Health lecturer at Uni. of Philippines and the next president of the Asian Assn of Occ. Health (AAOH))
- Dr Marylin Go, (Phillipines Paediatrician)
- Dr Jung Koo Roh, (South Korea; Toxicologist, Director of the Toxicology Research Center. KRICT)
- Dr Alun McIntyre, (Director, Consultants in Environmental Sciences (Asia) Ltd. (CES) )
- Dr.Sarah Liao, (Director of EHS Consultants in Hong Kong).
- Dr Yoon Shin Kim (College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul)
- Dr Lina Somera. (College of Public Health, Uni of the Philippines)
He adds tentatively:
- Professor Linda Koo, "who is the single most prominent ETS scientist in all of Asia"
On the financing side, [w]e thus far have paid consultant bills totaling $25,486.93. We have advanced those payments out of firm funds and are awaiting reimbursement. We have on hand two additional consultant statements totaling $39,232.29. In addition, we anticipate receiving over the next several weeks statements from our individual consultants totaling approximately $25,000.
Those statements will cover the consultants' time charges in reading the ETS literature packets we have provided to them, doing other work in preparation for the Bangkok meeting and actually attending the Bangkok meeting.
- [Note: The recruiter's consultancy fees were $64,719.]
1989 Jun 21 - 23 Agenda of the first Training workshop for Asian WhiteCoats in Bangkok. They have flown in as trainers:
- Dr George Leslie (Coordinator of the ARIA and IAI groups)
- Professor Francis Roe(Pathologist; popular TV personality who was also "The main WhiteCoat in Europe")
- Professor Roger Perry (Engineering and Environmental Sciences, Imperial College, London (tobacco paid him $60,000 pa))
- Dr Christopher Proctor (BAT Issues Management)
Additions to the WhiteCoats list are now:
- Jung Koo Roh (Toxicologist with KRICT, the Korean Toxicology Research Center) who introduced them to his friend Dr Kim.
- Malinee Wongphanich Industrial Hygienist (Mahidol University, Bangkok) (Now official)
- Payaow Pruksakorn Occupational Hygienist (Mahidol University) http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/ddh87a99/pdf
|Because these activities were confined on a 'need-to-know' basis within the tobacco companies, occasionally a document appears in the archives which spelled out with clarity why, and how, these groups of scientists were recruited, and what was expected of them. Within the companies, those involved in this scientific subterfuge began referring to their ETS Consultants as WhiteCoats.|
1989 Jul 7 Chris Proctor (BAT) reported to his executives on the "First Meeting of Asian ETS Consultants: Thailand." He says this was an attempt ...
...to consolidate a group of scientific consultants in Asia that will be willing to contribute to the debate on ETS issues.
The initial efforts of identifying and bringing together a group of consultants in Asia is being sponsored by B&W, PM and RJR, with John Rupp of Covington and Burling co-ordinating the efforts. Much of the ground-work has been undertaken by George Leslie, a toxicologist who in part, co-ordinates the UK ETS consultant group ARIA, and David Billings, a Covington and Burling lawyer only a few months out of law school.
Regarding structure, Leslie is the direct interface between Rupp and the scientists and funding of individual consultants is channelled through Leslie. However, Rupp maintains strong control over Leslie.
- [Note: They are maintaining a two-level money washing system (or three-levels if it also passes through ARIA or EHS Consultancy.]
It was proposed that each country might partake in an indoor air quality study to be compared and presented at a conference in Lisbon in early 1990. Rupp undertook to seek sponsors for such a study.
It was stated that the consultants should continue to act independently, but that Sarah Liao would be sponsored to receive current literature on ETS and IAQ from ARIA, and should subsequently pass relevant papers to each consultant. In private, it was also agreed that Liao would be used as a route to fund Koo.
|There was now a need to give these new novice recruits some semblance of scientific credibility in the specialist fields of IAQ and ETS. The quickest and best way was to establish credentials was to have them invited to make speeches at a major conference on IAQ and ETS. They would then earn a 'citation' in the published proceedings. No one outside this narrow field of expertise would then question their expertise. The McGill University ETS Symposium was set up by Philip Morris for precisely this reason.|
1989 Jul 11Andrew Whist, the ex-Australian/Norwegian tobacco lobbyist, now at the head of Philip Morris's New York Corporate Affairs division, writes to his ex-Australian boss, Geoff Bible, who now heads Philip Morris International. He is reporting on the success of his WhiteCoats programs (now in Europe, Scandinavia and Asia) after two years of the program operating. He boasts about:
- They have recruited 70 scientists as WhiteCoats.
- Budgeting payments and control has now been handed over on a regional basis to the local corporate affairs divisions in those countries.
- Corporate Affairs staff in New York supervise the program (under Andrew Whist)
- The lawyers from Covington & Burling also have a watching brief. (under John Rupp)
- Several hundred specific activities or events have been completed: —
- press briefings,
- government official briefings,
- publications of scientific reviews, (tobacco now controls or influences many journals)
- several air-quality studies (designed to prove passive smoking isn't an office problem)
- running a number of scientific conferences (always loaded with tame scientists)
- submissions to inquiries on public smoking (this is the value of having on tap 'independent experts')
- testimony before various legislative bodies. (they could swear they'd never been paid a cent by a tobacco company)
- preparing legal affidavits opposing claims of ETS health problems.
- publication of a book "Clearing the Air".
- drafting of two additional books on ETS and IAQ issues
He boasts that they have made "Approximately 100 separate presentations at major international scientific meetings challenging the unwarranted health claims made concerning ETS."
- [Note: This is a ten-page detailed report on the various activities in different regions. It also gives a detailed accounting, broken down by region, of: —
- Numbers recruited,
- Affiliation with universities,
- Private consultants,
- Disciplines covered.
- Annual fees ... (It says): "No retainers paid. Compensation on basis of time spent. $15,000 to $20,000 per year on average."
- Scientific conferences [run or influenced].
- Published papers.
- Papers in preparation
- Scientific briefings
- Political briefings
- Management briefings
- Media interviews
- Books, etc.
- Total project cost over two years : $2,500,000
- Total legal cost over two years : Approx $1,000,000 
|The McGill and Lisbon pseudo-conferences|
|Philip Morris, with minor support from the other companies, ran two totally-controlled scientific conferences, almost back-to-back.
The first held November 1989 in Toronto, Canada and was called the McGill Conference or the McGill University ETS Symposium. It was by invitation-only... (Andrew Whist at Philip Morris controlled the selection.) so it was entirely populated by old scientific retainers of the industry plus a few new recruits. Not all the new recruits would have known that the older group were also contracters to the industry, so this exposure may have reinforced their own rationalisations about conducting pseudo-research for money.
McGill provided training for some of the new Asian WhiteCoats; furthermore, these newcomer's made speeches which were recorded in the conference proceedings. These were published by another tobacco-controlled organisation, the Institute for International Health & Development, which became a de facto textbook on the Smoking & Health problem ... by virtue of there being nothing else available. In effect, this gave the newcomer's the credibility-equivalent of being published in a peer-reviewed journal.
The "Indoor Air Quality in Warm Climates" conference, often known in the literature as the First Lisbon ETS Conference was held in April 1990, and it also was totally controlled. The aims here were more directed at countering public smoking problems in Asia, Africa, Iberia and Latin America where outdoor air pollution was rife, and air-conditioned offices were often rare (they generally used ceiling fans, which fortunately circulated the toxic smoke-density air).This confernce provided many of the Asian WhiteCoats with a generously funded, paid holiday in Portugal and the opportunity to get on the scientific record as a speech-making, (and therefore they became "genuine" indoor-air-quality expert). By having their words of wisdom (either ghosted by industry scientists, or 'improved' by industry PR hacks) incorporated into the published conference proceedings, they were then able to claim to have scientific 'citations'. It didn't matter whether they were invited speakers at the conference or discussants in a panel session, they instantly became recognised scientific experts.
1989 Oct 30 The first year of operations of Philip Morris's Boca Raton Action Plan -- Summary Report (long document)
The Asian consultants programme was initiated in April with scientists recruited from Philippines, Korea, Hong Kong and Thailand. The Asian Association of Occupational Health (AAOH) (under Malinee Wongphanich and Ben Reverente were to co-host the Indoor Air Quality in Warm Climates in Lisbon, April 1990.
1990 Feb The proposed budget for another year of Asian ETS Consultants project includes:
- Additional Recruitments of 1 in Philippines, 7 in Japan, 1 in Taiwan, 1 in Singapore, 2 in China, and 1 in Indonesia ($150,000)
- 'Orientation' training, meetings, training sessions, literature review payments $150,000
- Administration $125,000
- Asian Cities Monitoring Project, Hong Kong and Manilla -- $225,000
- Review articles in Asian scientific journals (eg. attack them) $ 35,000
- Lisbon Conference (publish papers, & other expenses) -- $75,000
- Distribute McGill publications + Korean translation -- $14,000
- Joint meeting of Philippines Medical Association and Society of Architects $8,000
- Misc $30,000
(Contributions from the five companies $160,000 each)
Attached is a list of Asian WhiteCoats at this stage of recruitment (with their specialities) https://www.industrydocumentslibrary.ucsf.edu/docs/#id=zrjf0194
1990 Sharon Boyse (Science Issues manager at BAT) memo on the Far East ETS Project. She explains to her superiors that it is
... to identify scientists in the Far East who are both willing and able to act as consultants to the industry on ETS issues.
[T]he climate (both indoors and outdoors) in Far Eastern countries is very different from Western countries. Countries such as Hong Kong, Thailand and the Philippines have serious outdoor air pollution problems that differ from those observed is the West.
It is therefore not credible to rely on research in the USA and Europe to indicate levels of ETS present in typical indoor air environments and their relationship to other chemicals in the air.
The project (Asian Whitecoats) was initiated in March 1989 by Philip Morris, but it was recognised that other companies operating in the region would need to be involved. John Rupp of C&B is coordinating. (Those involved)
- 9 consulting scientists were identified in 1989 in Hong Kong, Thailand, Philippines, Taiwan and South Korea (and since trained) (we are) Now recruiting in Malaysia and Singapore and Indonesia.
- The Asian Association for Occupational Health will host a symposium (in) late 1990
- Chris Proctor (BAT) will prepare a study proposal.
- the 1990 budget is £350,000, split five ways.
1990 Apr [From an earlier Asian ETS Consultants Project report from John Rupp.]
Lisbon Conference -- April 1990
- A number of the Asia consultants ( Kim, Liao, Somera and Reverente ) are in the process of finishing drafts of papers for presentation at the Lisbon conference on Indoor Air Quality and Ventilation in Warm Climates. http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/kzf87e00/pdf
- [Note: In Asia, the tobacco companies focussed propaganda on ambient outdoor air-pollution to explain their fictional "sick-building-syndrome", while, in the developed world, they fingered air-conditioning rates, duct maintenance, photocopy machines, plastic paints and synthetic carpets.]
Philip Morris had a Science & Technology division known as 'FTR' in Neuchatel, Switzerland, where any research could be kept closeted away from USA or UK court cases, because FTR wasn't obviously a Philip Morris subsidiary. They were only involved in the WhiteCoats programs fairly late.
Note the mention of "Genussmittel". This probably sparked the idea that became another project called ARISE - Associates for Research into the Science of Enjoyment ARISE was similar to all these IAQ/ETS consultant's pseudo-associations, but it involved recruited psychologists. The idea was to provide the tobacco industry with a rationale for the consumption of nicotine and alcohol in large quantities -- and publicise this fact through celebrities in the media. Very many academic psychologists and British curmudgeon-celebrities enjoyed conferences and/or research funding at the tobacco industry's expense via ARISE.]
1990 Apr 30 Helmut Gaisch's (Director) report from FTR Science & Technology in Switzerland says:
- They held ARIA meetings in England to review the last six months and plan for future projects. "ARIA members have greatly increased their knowledge concerning the indoor environment ..."
- FTR are to lend Chris Proctor of BAT three briefcase samplers for IAQ surveys in Asia. (These are PASS units' they were setting up sham indoor air testing to produce publishable reports exonerating tobacco smoke)
- the also discussed the subject of "Genussmittel" (the use of substances for enjoyment.)
- Torbjorn Malmfors, the Swedish organiser of EGIL visited to discuss ARIA and APAIAQ.
1990 Sep 18 Sharon Boyse at BAT has faxed to her disinformation staff at various Asian and Australian subsidiaries an upgrade of the Asian WhiteCoats program:
A consultant has finally been identified in Taiwan: Professor Wen-Chen Victor Liu from The Department of Industrial Engineering and Management at the National Chio Tung University. He is an expert on building ventilation and its impact on indoor air quality.
A second consultant has been recruited in Singapore: Dr Siew Eang Lee, the Director of Laboratories at the School of Architecture, University of Singapore. He oversees testing and research concerning building design, ventilation and other factors that affect indoor air quality.
An orientation session (training program) has been scheduled in Manila on October 19 for new consultants from Taiwan, Indonesia, Singapore and Malaysia. A further session for the six new Japanese consultants is scheduled for early December in Tokyo.
She also mentions under the heading "Consultant Activities"
Distribution of the proceedings of the McGill University ETS Symposium is now complete (IIHD), along with its translation into Korean and Japanese.
She bills each of the subsidiaries $20,000 to support these activites in their area of the world. http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/aej10a99/pdf
1990 Oct 19 This is a record of the meeting of the New South East Asian Consultants (Asian WhiteCoats) in Manila, just before a formal training conference. It lists those present as ...
- Dr Izhar M Fihir -- Jakarta (Faculty of Public Health, University of Indonesia, Depok)
- Dr Lee Siew Eang aka Siew Eang Lee -- Singapore (Director of Laboratories, School of Architecture, University of Singapore)
- Dr Lim Heng Juat -- KL
- Dr Wen-chen Victor Liu -- Taipei expert on building ventilation. (Department of Industrial Engineering and Management,National Chio Tung University)
- Dr Quah Lee Kiang -- Singapore 
Other Participants/speakers [Older WhiteCoats and Recruiters]
- Luis Ferrer (known as 'Ben') (College of Architecture and Fine Arts, Uni of Santo Tomas + Director, Health Infrastructure Service of Philippine Ministry of Health
- George Leslie (of ARIA and IAI)
- Roger Perry (Professor of Ventilation Engineering, Imperial College London)
- Helen M Garnett (Uni of Woolongong, NSW, Aust) (Biologist and Nuclear Scientist)
- Linda Koo (Epidemiologist Uni of Hong Kong)
- Ben Reverente (Occupational Hygienist, Philippines)
- Camilo Roa (Chest Physician, with the Manila Medical Center)
- Lina Somera (Occupational health/biostatistician. University of the Philippines).
David Billings, John Rupp (Covington & Burling)
Later Additions: Three other Korean's were added to their lists at about this time (retainers/contractors).
- Dr Cha Chul-Whan (Head of the Institute of Environmental Health, Uni of Korea)
- Dr Eung Bai Shin (Dept of Civil Engineering, Hanyang Uni in Korea) 
- Dr Baek (unknown, reporting from within ASHRAE/SAREK (Society of Air-conditioning and Refrigerating Engineers of Korea) 
1991 Jan 2 Sharon Boyse memo: Gives a rundown on the success of the Asian Whitecoats program British-American Tobacco (BAT) and explains that Philip Morris were also planning to direct Covington & Burling to create a group of whitecoats in Latin America.
- Argentina -- 3 consultants
- Venezuela -- 3 consultants
- Brazil -- 4 consultants
- Chile -- 2 consultants
- Ecuador -- 2 consultants
The expected cost was $ 340,000. PM and C&B already had consultants in South America who could be used as starting points for recruitment. They would need training at orientation sessions held at regular intervals. http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/zrq44a99/pdf
1991 Mar 28 The scientific journal Environmental Toxicology has just published an IAQ study of Hong Kong offices and shops by Sarah Liao San-tung, (Here the initials are of SST (llSara Liao]]), John Bacon-Shone and Yoon Shin Kim all members of the Asian WhiteCoats group. They found that
"the air quality was principally determined by outdoor air, with highly significant correlations between indoor and outdoor levels of RSP (breathable particles), CO (carbon monoxide) and NO2(Nitrous oxide)." and that analysis related to tobacco smoking showed extremely low levels of ETS. (What's more, those offices with complaints ...) regarding drowsiness, headaches and symptoms of eye, nose and respiratory trace irritations were positively associated with CO2, NO2, CO (and other) levels (and) did not show any relationship to occupier comfort or sick-building syndrome complaints.
- [Note how cleverly they have introduced the tobacco-promoted idea that it is the buildings which are sick, not the air.]
- [Note that the protocols for this and other studies in Seoul and Manila were prepared by the lawyers and given to these researchers together with a request that they find even more places to study. 
1993 John Rupp at Covington & Burling is presenting his Proposal for Regional Recommendation and Funding Requirements. (for 1993) He proposes further recruitment in Japan, Korea, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, Hong Kong, Taiwan. -- 12 to 14 scientists -- $175,000 [Note: This 29 page document would be a draft proposal from Covington & Burling. (There is no letterhead)]
- For Region in general:
TOTAL $420,000 (FOR: Recruitment, Newsletter, Training, Living and Travelling expenses and legal fees)
- Hong Kong:
- Recruitment: 1 or 2 scientists.
- (Projects) Dr Sarah Liao to be encouraged to obtain a Consumer Council grant for restaurant air quality study.
TOTAL $95,000 + $75,000 for other activities suggested.
- Publication: [or the proceedings] of the IAQ seminar under the banner of the University of Jakarta (and) distribute to government departments and media.
- Recruitment: scientist with academic position in a prestigious university. (and) occupational hygienist,
- (projects) IAQ office study
- create ASHRAE chapter
- Recruitment: -- two or three additional consultants + Tobacco Institute of Japan (YIOJ) Spokesperson.
- (Projects) Distribute Modern Medicine and Round Table Monograph; APACT Response - press office/scientific consultants [Note APACT is NOW Advances in Process Analytics and Control Technology which apparently still runs APACT Conferences on Tobacco or Health, but in the 1990s it was Asian Pacific Association for the Control of Tobacco]
TOTAL -- $200,000
- Recruitment: - Physician or health related scientist + Air monitoring expert.
- (Projects) IAQ Study sponsored through Institute of Environmental and industrial Medicine
- Kim retainer - Sponsored in return for monthly reports -- $12,000 pa [Note: This is probably Yoon Shin Kim of Hanyan Uni]
- Journal of the Institute of Environmental and Industrial Medicine subsidy
- Environmental Health Priority Study by Dr Cha Chul-Whan (head of Institute of Environmental Health, Korea University) and Dr Eung Bai Shin (Dept of Civil Engineering, Hanyang)
- ASHRAE/SAREK place Dr Baek on a retainer and ask him to join and be active in SAREK ($10,000)
- Recruitment: - A new scientist associated with presigious university.
- (Projects) Dr Lim or industry to distribute material.
- ASHRAE Dr Lim to become active (in the Asian version) if exists, or to consider ways to set up an ASHRAE chapter in Malaysia. [Note: ASHRAE is the US air-conditioning industry organisation which sets (virtually global) standards.]
- HBI studies, and Misc. (Note: HBI is the worst of the sham air testing companies, Healthy Buildings International)
- Dr Quah as an observer at Tokyo Round Table (It's not clear which Round Table was of interest)
- Quah to be retained to monitor ETS developments and to join and energize local ASHRAE chapter.
- 1994 Seminar to publicize Dr Lee's studies ($80,000)
- Recruitment: - two scientists
- (Projects) Environmental health priorities report; Indoor air seminar organized by IAI or JIARS ($80,000);
- HBI study ($60,000);
- HBI contact with ventilation company ($10,000)
- Public attitude study sponsored by TIROC
- Recruitment: - Two scientific/medical consultations.
- (Projects) Formation of a National Growers Association and Tobacco Documentation Center
- Distribute monograph from Bangkok indoor air symposium
- IAQ study sponsored by CIAR
OVERALL TOTAL $1,484,000 (Does not include China of the Philippines which are still being developed)