Democratization is "the transition from authoritarian or semi-authoritarian systems to democratic political systems, in which there is universal suffrage, regular elections, a civil society, the rule of law, and an independent judiciary," according to the Wikipedia.
Related SourceWatch Resources
- Arab Spring
- civil war in Iraq
- Democratization, the Journal
- failed state
- forward strategy of freedom
- National Endowment for Democracy
- New Iraq
- regime change
- road map to peace
- rogue nation
- Pax Americana
- sectarian break-up of Iraq
- spreading the seeds of democracy
- timeline to global governance
- violence in the Middle East
Programs & Organizations
- Comparative Democratization Project, Stanford University.
- "Democratic Governance," United Nations Development Programme.
- "Democratization," Government Innovators Network, Harvard University John F. Kennedy School of Government.
- "Democratization," Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights (OSCE).
- "Democratization," Oxford Scholarship Online. Links to articles.
- Network Institute for Global Democratization website.
- Jackson-Powell Research Workshops - "collaborative outputs of the Jackson School of International Studies at the University of Washington and the Colin Powell Center for Policy Studies at the City University of New York’s City College."
- The Tharwa Project website.
- Sahr John Kpundeh, Editor, "Democratization in Africa: African Views, African Voices," Panel on Issues in Democratization, National Research Council, 1992. Free online publication.
Articles & Commentary
- Robert H. Dorff, "Democratization and Failed States: The Challenge of Ungovernability," Parameters (U.S. Army War College), Summer 1996.
- David Rieff, "The End of Empire. The war in Iraq was supposed to launch a bold new American foreign policy. But has the neoconservatives' grandiose dream ended before it began?" Mother Jones, May/June 2004.
- Gary C. Gambill, "Democratization, the Peace Process, and Islamic Extremism," Middle East Intelligence Bulletin, June/July 2004.
- Daniel Neep, "Dilemmas of Democratization in the Middle East: The 'Forward Strategy of Freedom'," Middle East Policy Council Journal, Fall 2004.
- Julian Sanchez, "The Limits of Democratization. Will promoting democracy bolster national security?" Reason Online, February 15, 2005.
- "Egyptian Feminist Nawal El Saadawi on Bush's 'Democratization' of Middle East: 'We Were Fighting For Years...They Deprive Us of Our Struggle'," Democracy Now!, March 3, 2005.
- Dilip Hiro, "Playing the Democracy Card" (Introduction by Tom Engelhardt), Mother Jones, May 17, 2005.
- Liaquat Ali Khan, "US Democratization as Gift to Muslim Nations. The Belly of the Trojan Horse," CounterPunch, July 6, 2005.
- Sean L. Yom, "Civil Society and Democratization in the Arab World," Middle East Review of International Affairs, December 2005.
- Debra Rae, "Deception of Global Democratization," NewsWithViews, December 17, 2005.
- Aurel Croissant, "International Interim Governments, Democratization, and Post-Conflict Peace-building: Lessons from Cambodia and East Timor," Strategic Insights, January 2006.
- Lorne Craner, "Will U.S. Democratization Policy Work? Democracy in the Middle East," The Middle East Quarterly/Middle East Forum, Summer 2006.
- Amr Hamzawy, "Is the U.S. Through With Arab Democracy? Commentary: The Bush administration seems to be retreating from its former policy of democracy promotion in the Middle East," Mother Jones, June 26, 2006. (Article created by Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.)
- Joshua Muravchik, "A Democracy Policy in Ashes," Washington Post, American Enterprise Institute, June 27, 2006.
- David Shelby, "U.S. Pledges Full Support for Middle East Democratization. State's Welch says U.S. accepts Islamic parties, rejects radicalism," U.S. Department of State, June 28, 2006.
- Heinrich August Winkler, "Forced democratization? Some lessons from postwar Germany," Eurozine, June 29, 2006.
- Philip H. Gordon, "The End of the Bush Revolution," Foreign Affairs / Brookings Institution, July/August 2006.
- Anatol Lieven, "Bush's Middle East Democracy Flop. The U.S. has alienated potential allies and undermined its own stated goals," Los Angeles Times, July 23, 2006.