Move To Amend

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Move To Amend, according to its website, "is a project of the Campaign to Legalize Democracy. The purpose of the Campaign to Legalize Democracy is to end the illegitimate legal doctrines that prevent the American people from governing ourselves. We were initiated by Democracy Unlimited of Humboldt County (DUHC), the Independent Progressive Politics Network (IPPN), the Liberty Tree Foundation for the Democratic Revolution (Liberty Tree), and Ultimate Civics. ... We, the People of the United States of America, reject the U.S. Supreme Court's ruling in Citizens United, and move to amend our Constitution to: Firmly establish that money is not speech, and that human beings, not corporations, are persons entitled to constitutional rights; Guarantee the right to vote and to participate, and to have our votes and participation count; Protect local communities, their economies, and democracies against illegitimate "preemption" actions by global, national, and state governments."


Colorado and Montana Vote Against Citizens United

Colorado's Amendment 65 and Montana's Initiative 166 are ballot propositions designed to challenge the Supreme Court decision on Citizens United v. FEC that lifted bans on corporate political spending (see CMD's reporting for more on Citizens United).[1]

On November 7, 2012, Colorado's measure passed with 73.7 percent voting for and 26.3 percent against, while Montana's passed with 74.9 percent voting for and 25.1 percent against.

2012 Ballot Initiatives

Even before Election Day on November 7, there has been a remarkable initiative nationwide to push against the Supreme Court's Citizens United decision. Courtesy of People For The American Way[2], here is a list of local resolutions through June 17, 2012, supplemented by ballot initiatives that succeeded on November 6, 2012[3]:

Alaska

State Resolutions

  • HJR 33, introduced by Representatives Gara, Tuck, Holmes, Miller, Gardner, Kawaski, Kerttula, and Petersen on February 2, 2012, proposes that Congress and the President work to pass a constitutional amendment that would limit the ability of corporations, unions and wealthy individuals from making limitless independent expenditures to influence the outcome of elections. Currently awaiting passage in Alaska’s House of Representatives.
  • SJR 13, introduced by Senator Dyson, passed in the Senate on March 21, 2012 in a 12-7-1 vote and is currently awaiting passage in the House. It proposes that Congress and the President work to pass a constitutional amendment that would limit the ability of corporations, unions and wealthy individuals from making limitless independent expenditures to influence the outcome of elections.


Arizona

State Resolutions

  • HCR 2049, introduced by State Representative McCune Davis on February 1, 2012, provides support for the introduction of a 2012 ballot initiative that would call upon Congress to pass a constitutional amendment to overturn the Citizens United decision and related cases.
  • SCR 1040, introduced by State Senator Steve Gallardo on January 31, 2012, provides support for the introduction of a 2012 ballot initiative that would call upon Congress to pass a constitutional amendment to overturn the Citizens United decision and related cases.

Local Resolutions Passed

  • On May 4, 2012 the Flagstaff City Council passed a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment, organized by a new citizens' group called Flagstaff for Democracy. The resolution calls on Congress to approve a 28th amendment to the United States Constitution that would overturn Citizens United by stating that corporations are not natural persons entitled to constitutional protections of free speech, that money is not speech for the purpose of influencing elections, and that local, state and federal government shall have the right to regulate, limit or prohibit contributions and expenditures, including a candidate’s own contributions and expenditures for the purpose of influencing in any way the election of any candidate for public office or any ballot measure, and that any permissible contributions and expenditures be publicly disclosed.
  • On June 12, 2012, The Tuscon City Council voted 7-0 in favor of abolishing corporate personhood and supporting a Constitutional amendment.


Arkansas

Local Resolutions Passed

  • On June 5, 2012, the Fayetteville City Council passed a resolution to defend democracy by ensuring only human beings, not corporations, have constitutionally protected free speech.


California

State Resolutions

  • AJR 3, introduced on January 23, 2010 by Assemblyman Pedro Nava (D-35), expresses disagreement with the Citizens United ruling, and calls upon Congress to pass a constitutional amendment to address the issue.
  • AJR 22, introduced on March 20, 2012 by Assemblyman Weikowski, passed in the California State Assembly and passed in the California State Senate. Thus, California became the 6th state to call upon Congress to propose an amendment. It proposes that Congress pass a constitutional amendment to overturn the Citizens United decision.

Local Resolutions Passed

  • On April 25th, 2000, the municipality of Point Arena passed a resolution rejecting corporate personhood, which declared, “Interference in the democratic process by corporations frequently usurps the rights of citizens to govern.”
  • On May 19, 2004, the city of Arcata passed Resolution No. 034-51, the Corporate Personhood Resolution, declaring corporate personhood illegitimate and undemocratic. It attempts to prevent corporations from challenging Arcata town laws that restrict corporations.
  • On February 10, 2010, the Humboldt County Democratic Central Committee passed the Resolution to Legalize Democracy and Abolish Corporate Personhood in response to the Citizens United v. FEC ruling. The resolution calls for an amendment to the US Constitution to abolish corporate personhood.
  • On March 1, 2010, Richmond City Council votes unanimously to support a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to abolish corporate personhood.
  • On April 1, 2010, the Berkeley City Council passed a resolution calling for "amending the United States and California Constitutions to declare that corporations are not entitled to the protections or "rights" of human beings and to declare that the expenditure of corporate money is not a form of constitutionally protected speech."
  • On December 1, 2010, students at UC Santa Barbara passed a resolution against corporate personhood through their student government.
  • On March 28, 2011, the Fort Bragg (CA) City Council passed a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to ban corporate personhood. All of the council members present voted for it; one member was absent.
  • On April 1, 2011, AFSCME Local 1684 in Eureka passed a resolution condemning the Supreme Court’s ruling on Citizens United and proposing a constitutional amendment to reverse the decision.
  • On April 12, 2011, the Central Labor Council of Humboldt and Del Norte adopted the Move to Amend Model Resolution.
  • On April 22, 2011, the Associated Students of HSU passed a resolution supporting the Move to Amend campaign and calling for a constitutional amendment to abolish corporate personhood. The resolution was proposed by a group of students working with Democracy Unlimited.
  • On July 21, 2011, the South Robertson Neighborhood Council (SORONC) passed a non-binding resolution to amend the Constitution to state clearly and unequivocally that human beings, not corporations, are entitled to constitutional rights and that money should not be equated with speech.
  • On August 15, 2011, the Ojai Valley Democratic Club endorsed a resolution supporting a Constitutional amendment ending corporate personhood.
  • On August 24, 2011, the Marin County Board Supervisors voted unanimously in favor of a resolution supporting a Constitutional amendment to overturn the Citizens United decision and limit corporate constitutional rights.
  • On Tuesday October 18, 2011, the Marina City Council passed a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment in response to the Citizens United vs Federal Election Commission case.
  • On December 1, 2011, the Wellstone Progressive Democrats of Sacramento passed a resolution that calls for a constitutional amendment that abolishes corporate personhood. They also agreed to send a letter with the endorsed resolution to the California State Democratic Central Committee asking the California Democratic Party to endorse the resolution.
  • On December 6, 2011, Los Angeles City unanimously endorsed a resolution to end personhood rights of corporations and allows Federal, State, and Local governments to regulate campaign finance.
  • On December 20th, 2011, the city council of Oakland, California unanimously passed a resolution in support of a constitutional amendment to reverse the Citizens United decision.
  • On January 11th, 2012, the town council of Fairfax California approved a resolution in favor of abolishing corporate personhood with the intent of restoring the democratic process to the people.
  • On January 17, 2012, West Hollywood passed a resolution condemning the Supreme Court’s decision on Citizens United and supporting a constitutional amendment to overturn the ruling.
  • On January 24, 2012, the city of Santa Cruz approved a resolution that calls for a constitutional amendment to overturn the Supreme Court’s decision on Citizens United.
  • On January 25, 2012, the city of Petaluma passed a resolution in a 6-1 decision that called for a reversal of the Citizens United decision.
  • On January 31, 2012, the city of San Francisco passed a resolution condemning the Supreme Court’s ruling on Citizens United and supporting a constitutional amendment to reverse the decision.
  • On Feb. 21, 2012, the City of Sebastopol passed a resolution urging Congress to propose a constitutional amendment to remove corporate personhood and outlaw political spending by corporations.
  • On February 6, 2012, the Albany City Council has passed a municipal government resolution that calls for a constitutional amendment to overturn the Supreme Court’s decision on Citizens United and clarifies that corporations are not people.
  • On February 21, 2012, the city council of Davis voted unanimously on a resolution in support of Assembly Joint Resolution 22, a bill in the California legislature that calls on Congress to pass an amendment to overturn the Citizens United decision.
  • On March of 2012, the city of Point Arena unanimously passed a resolution supporting their previous resolution in 2000, which called for the abolition of corporate personhood.
  • On March 1, 2012, the Democratic Central Committee of Marin passed a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to overturn the Supreme Court’s ruling on Citizens United.
  • On March 6, 2012, the Berkeley City Council unanimously passed their second resolution calling upon Congress to amend the Constitution to overturn Citizens United in support of Assembly Bill AJR 22 and to 'stand with communities across the country' who are engaged in the movement.
  • On March 13, 2012, the Ojai City Council passed a resolution that supports a constitutional amendment to overturn the Supreme Court’s ruling on Citizens United.
  • On March 14, 2012, Nevada City’s City Council passed a resolution supporting a constitutional amendment stating that corporations should not receive the same constitutional rights as natural persons and that money is not speech.
  • On March 19, 2012, the Los Altos Hills City Council approved a resolution that condemns the Supreme Court’s ruling on Citizens United and calls for a constitutional amendment to reverse the decision.
  • On March 20, 2012, the city council of Mountain View passed a resolution in favor of abolishing corporate personhood, and encouraging Congress to pass a constitutional amendment that would overturn the Citizens United decision.
  • On March 23, 2012, the Sonoma County Board of Supervisors voted urging Congress to pass an amendment to the U.S. Constitution that would overturn the Citizens United decision.
  • On March 27, 2012, the city council of Santa Monica passed a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment that would overturn the Citizens United decision and declare that money is not speech.
  • On April 17th, 2012, the city council of Chico passed a resolution calling on Congress to pass a constitutional amendment to overturn the Citizens United decision. The resolution provides that corporations should not have the constitutional right to spend money in elections, and that money should not be equated to speech.
  • On April 9, 2012, the Malibu City Council, At the request of Councilmember Conley Ulich, adopted Resolution No. 12-10, supporting a Constitutional Amendment and legislative actions restricting corporate spending in the electoral process and ensuring that only human beings, not corporations, have constitutionally-protected free speech.
  • On April 24, 2012, City Council of the City of Thousand Oaks passed a resolution declaring its support for an amendment to the United States Constitution to end Corporate Personhood.
  • On May 5th, 2012, the Redlands City Council passed a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment based upon the principles that corporate rights should be limited and money is not speech.
  • On May 15, 2012, the Plumas County Board of Supervisors in Quincy, California passed a resolution to call for a constitutional amendment to abolish corporate personhood.
  • On June 12, 2012, the Ventura County Board of Supervisors passed a resolution that supports a Constitutional amendment ending corporate personhood and the doctrine that money is not free speech.
  • On June 26, 2012, the Oxnard city council voted 4-0 to support a constitutional amendment ending corporate personhood, a concept that has generated controversy following a 2010 U.S. Supreme Court ruling that allowed corporations certain unlimited political spending under free speech rules.

November 6, 2012 Election

  • Mendocino County volunteers collected petitions to place Move to Amend's model resolution stating that corporations are not people and money is not speech on their ballot. Passed by 73%.
  • San Francisco residents passed a measure calling for an amendment to overturn Citizens United. Passed by 80%.[4]
  • Richmond residents passed a measure calling for an amendment to overturn Citizens United. Passed by 72%.[5]


Colorado

Local Resolutions Passed

  • On April 5, 2011, the Arapahoe County Democratic Central committee approved a resolution in support of the Move to Amend constitutional amendment campaign.
  • On April 13, 2011, the Boulder Democratic Party passed the Urging Support of a Constitutional Amendment Abolishing Corporate Personhood resolution supporting an anti-corporate personhood amendment.
  • On September 12, 2011, the Jamestown Board of Trustees unanimously passed a resolution calling for an amendment to the U.S. Constitution to establish that only human beings, not corporations, are entitled to constitutional rights and that the First Amendment does not protect unlimited political spending as free speech.
  • On November 1, 2011, voters in Boulder City passed a ballot measure calling for an amendment to the US Constitution that would state that corporations are not people and reject the legal status of money as free speech.
  • On January 3, 2012, the Commissioners of Pueblo County, Colorado unanimously passed a resolution in favor of overturning the Citizens United decision, and calling for the end of corporate personhood.
  • On May 17, 2012 the Town Council of the town of Telluride passed a resolution declaring its support to ending corporate personhood.

November 6, 2012 Election

  • In Pueblo County, Move to Amend volunteers lobbied their County Commissioners to place a resolution on the ballot stating, "Do you want to instruct Pueblo's congressional representatives to propose and support, and Pueblo's state legislators to ratify, an Amendment to the United States Constitution to establish that:

1) The inherent rights of mankind recognized under the United States Constitution belong to natural human beings only, and not to legally created entities, such as corporations, and 2) Money is not speech and, therefore, limiting political contributions and spending is not equivalent to limiting political speech. Passed by 65%.

  • Colorado state Amendment 65 instructs Colorado’s congressional delegation to propose and support an amendment to the U.S. Constitution that allows congress and the states to limit campaign contributions and spending. Passed by 64%.


Connecticut

Local Resolutions Passed

  • On May 15th, 2012, the city council of Hartford unanimously passed a resolution in support of an amendment to the Constitution that would overturn Buckley v. Valeo and the Citizens United v. FEC. The public support for the amendment was strong, with standing-room-only at the public hearing and over 60 Hartford residents in support.
  • On June 4, 2012, the City Council of New London approved a resolution in support of a constitutional amendment abolishing corporate personhood.
  • On June 4, 2012, the Common Council of Middletown passed a resolution condemning the Citizens United decision and calling for electoral form.
  • On June 4, 2012, the New Haven Board of Aldermen passed a resolution that calls for an amendment to the Constitution abolishing corporate personhood.
  • On June 11, 2012 The Ashford Board of Selectmen passed a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to overturn Citizens United v FEC.
  • On June 11, 2012, the West Haven City Council passed a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to overturn Citizens United.


Florida

State Resolutions

  • SM 1576 – the People’s Rights Amendment – introduced by Sen. Braynon on January 5th 2012, proposes that Congress pass a constitutional amendment that would overturn the Citizens United decision.
  • HM 1275 – the People’s Rights Amendment – introduced by Rep. Williams on January 5th 2012, proposes that Congress pass a constitutional amendment that would overturn the Citizens United decision.

Local Resolutions Passed

  • On September 15, 2011, the Sarasota Alliance for Fair Elections (SAFE) has passed a resolution stating that SAFE stands with the Move to Amend campaign and communities across the country to defend democracy from the corrupting effects of undue corporate power by amending the United States Constitution.
  • On October 1, 2011, the Coalition of Concerned Patriots of Bradenton passed a resolution standing with the Move to Amend campaign, and calling for constitutional remedies to counter corporate influence.
  • On October 4, 2011, the South Miami City Commission passed a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to end corporate personhood.
  • On October 14, 2011, the Fruitland Park chapter of Pax Christi passed a resolution in support of a constitutional amendment and the Move to Amend campaign.
  • On October 20, 2011, the Social Justice Committee of the Universalist Unitarian Church in Venice approved a resolution that condemns the Supreme Court’s decision on Citizens United and supports a constitutional amendment to reverse the ruling.
  • On October 27, 2011, the Palm Beach County of Progressive Democrats passed a resolution calling for an amendment to end corporate personhood and reject the notion that money is speech.
  • On November 14, 2011, citizens in Orlando passed a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to overturn the decision in the Citizens United case. Furthermore, the resolution rejected the notion that ‘money is speech.’
  • In November of 2011, the Cutler Bay City Council passed a resolution calling for an amendment to the Constitution to overturn the Citizens United decision.
  • On December 1, 2011, the Southwest Florida Coalition for Peace and Justice passed a resolution supporting a constitutional amendment to reverse the Supreme Court’s decision on Citizens United.
  • On March 15, 2012, the Tampa Bay City council unanimously passed a resolution calling for Congress to amend the Constitution to rectify the Supreme Court’s interpretation of corporate rights and corporate engagement in the electoral process.
  • On March 19, 2012, the Key West City Commission passed a resolution condemning the Citizens United decision, stating that corporations should not have the same rights as people.


Georgia

State Resolutions

  • HR 1377, introduced on February 15, 2012 by State Representative Stephanie Benfield, opposing the United States Supreme Court's ruling in Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission and requesting a constitutional amendment “to restore republican democracy to the people of the United States.”


Hawaii

State Resolutions

  • SCR225, introduced on March 10, 2010 by Senator Gary L. Hooser (D-7), expresses disagreement with the Citizens United ruling and calls on the US Congress to pass a constitutional amendment barring the use of "person" when defining "corporate entity."
  • SR116, introduced on March 10, 2010 by Senator Gary L. Hooser (D-7), expresses disagreement with the Citizens United ruling and calls on the US Congress to pass a constitutional amendment barring the use of "person" when defining "corporate entity."
  • HCR282 HD1, introduced on March 10, 2010 by Rep. Bob Herkes (D-5) – passed both the House and Senate and was adopted on April 28th, 2010, expresses disagreement with the Citizens United ruling and calls on the US Congress to propose an amendment to the Constitution of the United States to permit Congress and States to regulate expenditure of funds by corporations engaging in political speech.
  • HR204, introduced on March 10, 2010, also by Rep. Bob Herkes (D-5), expresses disagreement with the Citizens United ruling and calls on the US Congress to pass a constitutional amendment barring the use of "person" when defining "corporate entity."
  • HB36, introduced on January 20, 2011 by Rep. Karl Rhoads (D-28), proposes a state constitutional amendment to provide that freedom of speech applies only to natural persons.
  • HCR 51 – a joint measure – was introduced on February 11, 2011 by Rep. Roy Takumi (D-36), proposing that the United States Congress pass a constitutional amendment that provides that corporations are not persons under the laws of the U.S. or any of its jurisdictional subdivisions.
  • HR 44 – a house measure – passed in the House on April 14, 2011. The bill was introduced by Rep. Roy Takumi (D-36). Proposes that the United States Congress pass a constitutional amendment that provides that corporations are not persons under the laws of the U.S. or any of its jurisdictional subdivisions.


Idaho

State Resolutions

  • HJM012, introduced on February 24, 2010 in the House State Affairs Committee, expresses disagreement with the Citizens United ruling and calls on the US Congress to take action through legislation or a constitutional amendment.


Illinois

Local Resolutions Passed

  • On May 5, 2012, the town of Warren passed a resolution calling for an end to corporate personhood.
  • On May 14, 2012, the Evanston City Council unanimously passed a resolution supporting a constitutional amendment to overturn the Citizens United ruling. The city’s resolution explicitly states its support for all such constitutional amendments introduced in Congress, including the one co-sponsored by U.S. Senator Dick Durbin (D-Ill.).
  • On June 4, 2012, Galesburg became the second city in Illinois to pass a City Council resolution calling for Congress to overturn the Supreme Court's decision in Citizen's United v. FEC by way of Constitutional Amendment.

November 6, 2012 Election

  • In DuPage County two townships voted on the following question: "Should the United States Constitution be amended to clearly state that only individual persons, and not corporations, associations, or any other organizational entities, are entitled to the rights enumerated in the Constitution?”

Lisle Township: Passed by 63%. City of Warrenville: Passed by 65%.

  • In Kane County, voters passed the following question: "Should the United States Constitution be amended to limit the use of corporate, special interest, and private money in any political activity, including influencing the election of any candidate for public office?" Passed by 73%.
  • In Avon Township (Lake County) voters passed the following question: "Should the United States Constitution be amended to limit the use of corporate, special interests, and private money in any political activity, including influencing the election of any candidate for public office?" Passed by 75%.
  • In Northfield Township (Cook County), voters approved the following question: “Should the United States Constitution be amended to limit the use of corporate, special interest, and private money in any political activity, including influencing the election of any candidate for public office?” Passed by 75%.
  • In Chicago, voters approved a measure that stated: “Shall the U.S. Congress pass a bill, to be duly ratified by three-fourths of the states, adopting an amendment to the U.S. Constitution, empowering the federal government and the states to regulate and limit political contributions from corporations?” Passed by 74%.
  • Oak Park Township (Cook County) voters approved a measure stating: “Shall the people of Oak Park stand with communities across the country in requesting that our village, county, state and federal representatives enact resolutions and legislation, including consideration for amending the Constitution of the United States to establish that: a) Political money is not the same as speech, and therefore that money shall be regulated; and b) The rights guaranteed by the Constitution were and are primarily intended for human beings, not corporations?" Passed by 85%.
  • Champaign Township and Cunningham Township (Champaign County) voters approved measures stating: "The U.S. Supreme Court held, in “Citizens United v. FEC”, that corporations have the rights of real human citizens and are entitled to spend unlimited amounts of money in support of political campaigns. To undo that decision, the people of the City of Champaign Township support an Amendment to the United States Constitution to establish that: 1) A corporation does not have the same rights as an actual person, and 2) Money is not speech and, therefore, regulating political spending is not equivalent to limiting political speech. We further request that our city, state and federal representatives enact resolutions and legislation to advance the two positions proposed as part of the Amendment, with reference to the need for an Amendment. Passed by 72% in Champaign and 72% in Cunningham.
  • Carbondale Township (Jackson County) passed a resolution in support of the Move to Amend amendment language. Passed by 68%.


Indiana

Local Resolutions Passed

  • On June 20, 2012 the Bloomington City Council passed a resolution calling to overturn Citizens United.


Iowa

State Resolutions

  • SR 113, introduced by State Senator Jeff Danielson, passed in the Senate by a 7-4 vote on March 12, 2012. The resolution expresses disagreement with the current interpretation of corporate rights and the Citizens United decision, and calls for Congress to enact appropriate legislation to regulate and restrict corporate spending in elections.


Kansas

State Resolutions

  • SCR 1617, introduced on March 18, 2012 by State Senators Holland, Faust-Goudeau, Francisco, Haley, Hensley and Steineger, opposing the United States Supreme Court's ruling in Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission, and requesting a constitutional amendment to repeal corporate personhood.


Kentucky

State Resolutions

  • HR 14, introduced by Representative Rollins on the January 4, 2011 General Assembly regular session, calls upon Congress to amend the Constitution to prevent corporate control of elections.


Maine

Local Resolutions Passed

  • On June 14, 2010, the town of Monroe passed a resolution denouncing the Citizens United decision.
  • On January 18, 2012, the city council of Portland, Maine, passed a resolution in support of a constitutional amendment that would provide that corporations are not people.
  • On February 21, 2012, the city council of Waterville passed a resolution in support of a constitutional amendment that would overturn the Citizens United decision.
  • On February 26, 2012, the town of Great Pond passed a resolution in support of a constitutional amendment that would overturn the Citizens United decision.
  • On March 11, 2012, Selectmen of the town of Freedom unanimously agreed to allow citizens to vote on a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to clarify that corporations are not people. The Town Meeting was held on March 11 and a majority of the 65 meeting participants were in favor of a non-binding vote to abolish corporate personhood.
  • On March 26, 2012, the Bangor City Council passed in a 5-3 vote a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to overturn the Citizens United decision and stating that corporations are not entitled to the same rights of natural persons.
  • On April 11, 2012, the Fairfield City Council unanimously passed a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to overturn the Citizens United decision and stating that corporations are not entitled to the same rights of natural persons.
  • On May 14, 2012, the city council of Winslow passed a resolution supporting an amendment to the U.S. Constitution that would clarify that money is not speech and corporations are not persons.
  • On May 15, 2012, the Bar Harbor City Council unanimously passed a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to overturn the Citizens United decision and stating that corporations are not entitled to the same rights of natural persons.
  • On June 2, 2012, the attendees of the Town Meeting of Leeds passed a Town Warrant to call for a constitutional amendment to overturn Citizens United.
  • On June 4, 2012 the town of Mount Desert, ME passed an article denouncing the Citizens United decision.
  • On June 13, 2012, the town Arrowsic approved an article denouncing the Citizens United decision.
  • On June, 18, 2012 the Newcastle Board of Selectmen passed a resolution denouncing Citizens United and calling for an end to corporate personhood.
  • On June 26, 2012 Southwest Harbor Board of Selectmen passed a resolution denouncing the Citizens United ruling.
  • In June of 2012, the city of Shapliegh has passed a resolution denouncing the Citizens United decision.
  • In June of 2012 the Bethel Board of Selectmen have passed a resolution denouncing the Citizens United decision.
  • In June of 2012 the town of Liberty, ME has passed a resolution denouncing the Citizens United decision.
  • In June of 2012, the town of Vassalboro, have passed a resolution denouncing the Citizens United decision.


Maryland

State Resolutions

  • On January 19, 2012, State Senator Jamie Raskin introduced a letter to the Maryland General Assembly. It sharply disagrees with the Supreme Court’s decision on Citizens United and calls for a constitutional amendment to be sent to each state for ratification to overturn the ruling. The majority of members in the House of Delegates and State Senate have signed this letter in agreement.

Local Resolutions Passed

  • On January 23, 2012, the Greenbelt City Council passed a resolution that supported a Maryland General Assembly Letter to Congress calling for a constitutional amendment to overturn Citizens United.
  • On January 24, 2012, the College Park City Council passed a resolution that supported a National General Assembly Letter to Congress calling for a constitutional amendment to overturn Citizens United and clarify that corporations are not people protected by the First Amendment.
  • On February 21, 2012, the Prince George’s County Council passed a resolution expressing support for a Maryland General Assembly Letter to Congress calling for a reversal of the Citizens United decision and to restore fair elections and democratic sovereignty to the people.
  • On March 6, 2012, the Mt. Rainier City Council unanimously passed a resolution supporting a Maryland General Assembly Letter to Congress that calls for campaign financing and spending by corporations should be limited and not protected under the First Amendment. It seeks to create a constitutional amendment to overturn the Citizens United decision.
  • On May 21, 2012, the city council of Baltimore passed a resolution in support of a constitutional amendment abolishing corporate personhood.


Massachusetts

State Resolutions

  • SD 772, introduced by State Senator Jamie Eldridge on January 21, 2011, the Free Speech for People resolution calling for the United States Congress to pass and send the states for ratification a constitutional amendment to restore the First Amendment and fair elections for the people. Currently being heard by the Joint Committee on the Judiciary.

City/Local Resolutions

  • In April of 2011, the town of Yarmouth passed a resolution in a town hall meeting demanding a constitutional amendment to dismantle corporate personhood.
  • On April 4, 2011, Provincetown passed resolution calling on the United States Congress to pass and send to the states for ratification a constitutional amendment to restore the First Amendment and fair elections to the people, and calling on the Massachusetts General Court to pass resolutions requesting those actions.
  • On April 24, 2011, the town of Leverett passed Move to Amend’s model resolution at a townhall meeting.
  • On April 26, 2011, the town of Truro passed a resolution calling on the United States Congress to pass and send to the states for ratification a constitutional amendment to restore the First Amendment and fair elections to the people.
  • On April 26, 2011, the town of Wellfleet passed a resolution calling on the United States Congress to pass and send to the states for ratification a constitutional amendment to restore the First Amendment and fair elections to the people.
  • In May of 2011, Lanesborough citizens passed a resolution that supports the overturning of the Citizens United decision, stating that the Supreme Court’s findings were wrong and clarifying that corporations are not people.
  • On May 2, 2011, the town of Great Barrington passed a resolution calling upon the United States Congress to pass and send to the states for ratification a constitutional amendment that Congress and the states will regulate the use of funds for political speech by any corporate entity.
  • On May 3, 2011, the town of Brewster passed a resolution calling for the Congress to pass and send to the states for ratification a constitutional amendment to restore the First Amendment and fair elections to the people.
  • On May 3, 2011, the town of Dennis passed a resolution calling on the United States Congress to pass and send to the states for ratification a constitutional amendment to restore the First Amendment and fair elections to the people.
  • On May 8, 2011, the town of Orleans passed a resolution calling on the United States Congress to pass and send to the states for ratification a constitutional amendment to restore the First Amendment and fair elections to the people.
  • On May 9, 2011, the town of Chatham passed a resolution calling on the United States Congress to pass and send to the states for ratification a constitutional amendment to restore the First Amendment and fair elections to the people.
  • On May 12, 2011, Williamstown passed a resolution calling on the United States Congress to pass and send to the states for ratification a constitutional amendment to restore the First Amendment and fair elections to the people.
  • On October 13, 2011, the town of Somerville passed a resolution condemning the Supreme Court’s decision on Citizens United and supports a constitutional amendment to overturn the ruling.
  • On October 24, 2011, the Cambridge City Council passed a resolution that supports a constitutional amendment to overturn the Supreme Court’s ruling on Citizens United.
  • On December 1, 2011, Psychologists for Social Responsibility in Brookline approved a resolution that condemns the Supreme Court’s decision on Citizens United and calls for a constitutional amendment to reverse the ruling.
  • On January 5, 2012, the town of Westport passed a resolution condemning the Supreme Court’s decision on Citizens United and supports a constitutional amendment to overturn the ruling.
  • On January 30, 2012, the Cambridge City Council passed a second resolution that supports a constitutional amendment to overturn the Supreme Court’s decision on Citizens United.
  • On February 14, 2012, the city council of Lynn passed a resolution that condemns the Supreme Court’s ruling on Citizens United and supports a constitutional amendment to reverse the decision.
  • On February 29, 2012, the city of Boston passed a resolution condemning the Supreme Court’s ruling on Citizens United and calling for a constitutional amendment to overturn the decision.
  • On March 20, 2012, the members of the Falmouth Town Meeting declared their support for abolishing corporate personhood, affirming their belief that the First Amendment only protects people.
  • On March 24, 2012, a town hall meeting in Lincoln passed a resolution that supports a constitutional amendment to overturn the Supreme Court’s ruling on Citizens United.
  • On March 27, 2012, the Newburyport Town Council passed a resolution that supports a constitutional amendment to overturn the Supreme Court’s decision on Citizens United.
  • On April 4, 2012, the town of Provincetown passed a resolution condemning the Supreme Court’s ruling on Citizens United and supporting a constitutional amendment to overturn the decision.
  • On April 5, 2012, the town of Falmouth passed a resolution condemning the Supreme Court’s ruling on Citizens United and supporting a constitutional amendment to overturn the decision.
  • On April 10, 2012, the town of Oak Bluffs passed a resolution that supports a constitutional amendment to overturn the Supreme Court’s decision on Citizens United.
  • On April 10, 2012, the town of Edgartown passed a resolution that condemns the Supreme Court’s decision on Citizens United and calls for a constitutional amendment to overturn the ruling.
  • On April 10, 2012, the town of West Tisbury passed a resolution supporting a constitutional amendment to overturn the Supreme Court’s ruling on Citizens United.
  • On April 10, 2012, the town of Tisbury passed a resolution condemning the Supreme Court’s decision on Citizens United and supporting a constitutional amendment to overturn the ruling.
  • On April 12, 2012, the town of Natick voted in favor of a resolution that calls for a constitutional amendment to overturn the Supreme Court’s ruling on Citizens United.
  • On April 19, 2012, the Northampton City Council unanimously passed a resolution calling for a Constitutional amendment that would reverse a Supreme Court decision giving corporations the same rights as people.
  • On April 23, 2012, the town of Chilmark passed a local resolution condemning the Supreme Court’s ruling on Citizens United and supporting a constitutional amendment to reverse the decision.
  • On April 24, 2012, the town of Framingham passed a resolution that supports a constitutional amendment to overturn the Supreme Court’s ruling on Citizens United.
  • On April 27, 2012, the town of Concord voted to pass a resolution that condemns the Supreme Court’s decision on Citizens United and calls for a constitutional amendment to overturn the ruling.
  • On April 28, 2012, the town of Leverett passed a second resolution condemning the Supreme Court’s ruling on Citizens United and calling for a constitutional amendment to reverse the decision.
  • On April 28, 2012, the town of Nahant voted to pass a resolution that supports a constitutional amendment to overturn the Supreme Court’s ruling on Citizens United.
  • On April 30, 2012, the town of West Newbury voted to pass a resolution that supports a constitutional amendment to overturn the Supreme Court’s ruling on Citizens United.
  • On May 1, 2012, the town of Reading passed a resolution condemning the Supreme Court’s decision on Citizens United and calling for a constitutional amendment to overturn the ruling.
  • On May 1, 2012, the town of Shutesbury passed a resolution condemning the Supreme Court’s decision on Citizens United and calling for a constitutional amendment to overturn the ruling.
  • On May 1, 2012, the town of Shelburne passed a resolution condemning the Supreme Court’s decision on Citizens United and calling for a constitutional amendment to overturn the ruling.
  • On May 1, 2012, the town of Deerfield passed a resolution condemning the Supreme Court’s decision on Citizens United and calling for a constitutional amendment to overturn the ruling.
  • On May 3, 2011, the town of Dennis, MA introduced, voted and passed article 51 calling on the United States Congress to pass and send to the states for ratification a constitutional amendment to restore the First Amendment and fair elections to the people.
  • On May 5, 2012, the town of Cummington passed a resolution calling for an amendment to Constitution to overturn the Citizens United decision.
  • On May 5, 2012, the town of Pelham passed a resolution calling for an amendment to Constitution to overturn the Citizens United decision.
  • On May 5, 2012, the town of Warren passed a resolution calling for an amendment to Constitution to overturn the Citizens United decision.
  • On May 5, 2012, the town of Ashfield voted in favor (with only two dissenting votes out of 65) to support a resolution in favor of amending the Constitution to overturn the Citizens United decision.
  • On May 7, 2012, the Amherst City Council unanimously passed a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to overturn the Citizens United decision.
  • On May 7, 2012, the town of Sheffield passed a resolution calling for an amendment to Constitution to overturn the Citizens United decision.
  • On May 7, 2012, the town of Warwick passed a resolution calling for an amendment to Constitution to overturn the Citizens United decision.
  • On May 1, 2012, the town of Swampscott passed a resolution condemning the Supreme Court’s decision on Citizens United and calling for a constitutional amendment to overturn the ruling.
  • On May 8, 2012, the town of Colrain passed a resolution calling for an amendment to Constitution to overturn the Citizens United decision.
  • On May 8, 2012, The town of Aquinnah passed a local resolution supporting S. 772 State resolution to overturn Citizens United and restore first amendment rights.
  • On May 9, 2012, the town of Orleans passed a resolution calling for an amendment to Constitution to overturn the Citizens United decision.
  • On May 9, 2012, the town of West Tisbury passed a resolution calling for an amendment to Constitution to overturn the Citizens United decision.
  • On May 9, 2012, the town of Buckland passed a resolution calling for an amendment to Constitution to overturn the Citizens United decision.
  • On May 10, 2012, the Salem City Council passed a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to overturn the Citizens United decision.
  • On May 14, 2012, the town of Boxborough passed a resolution calling for an amendment to Constitution to overturn the Citizens United decision.
  • On May 14, 2012, the town of Needham passed a resolution calling for an amendment to Constitution to overturn the Citizens United decision.
  • On May 14, 2012, the town of Rowe passed a resolution calling for an amendment to Constitution to overturn the Citizens United decision.
  • On May 14, 2012, the town of Medway passed a resolution approving Article 49 and urged support for the Senate Bill 772: A Resolution Restoring Free Speech, sponsored by state Sen. Jamie Eldridge.
  • On May 15, 2012, the town of Conway passed a resolution calling for an amendment to Constitution to overturn the Citizens United decision.
  • On May 15, 2012, the town of Otis passed a resolution calling for an amendment to Constitution to overturn the Citizens United decision.
  • On May 15, 2012, the city council of Worcester passed a resolution that condemns the Supreme Court’s ruling on Citizens United and supports the People's Rights Amendment.
  • On May 16, 2012, the town of Arlington passed a resolution condemning the Supreme Court’s Citizens United decision and calling for a constitutional amendment to overturn the ruling.
  • On May 21, 2012, the town of Somerset passed a resolution abolishing corporate personhood.
  • On May 22, 2012 the town of Brookline passed a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to overturn the Supreme Court’s decision in Citizens United vs. FEC.
  • On May 23, 2012, the town of Richmond passed a resolution to abolish corporate personhood.
  • On May 25, 2012, the town of Stockbridge passed a resolution in opposition to the Citizens United decision.
  • On May 25, 2012, the town of Charlemont passed a resolution in support of abolishing corporate personhood.
  • On May 29, 2012, the town of Newbury passed a resolution in support of abolishing corporate personhood.
  • On June 4, 2012, the City Council of Quincy passed a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to overturn the Supreme Court’s decision in Citizens United vs. FEC.
  • On June 4, 2012, the Town of Wendell passed a resolution to show their support for an amendment to the US Constitution that would proclaim that the rights listed in the bill of rights are for people, rather than corporations.
  • On June 7, 2012, the town of Bernardston passed a resolution advocating for the reversal of the Supreme Court's decision in Citizens United v. FEC by way of a constitutional amendment.
  • On June 20, 2012 the Lenox Board of Selectmen passed a resolution calling to overturn the Citizens United decision.
  • On July 9, 2012 The Newton Board of Alderman passed a resolution calling for a Constitutional amendment to overturn Citizens United last night by a near unanimous vote (23-1).

November 6, 2012 Election

  • Voters in 120 towns[6] (about 1/3 the population of the state) voted on local measures that instruct their state senator or legislator to support a constitutional amendment affirming that

1) corporations are not entitled to the constitutional rights of human beings and

2) both Congress and the states may place limits on political contributions and political spending.

Passed by a combine measure of 79%.[7]


Michigan

Local Resolutions Passed

  • On December 1, 2011, the Dickinson County Democratic Party passed a resolution that condemns the Supreme Court’s ruling on Citizens United and calls for a constitutional amendment to overturn the decision.
  • On February 2, 2012, the Emmet County Democratic Committee Executive Board declared support for the Move to Amend resolution, which calls upon Congress to propose an amendment to the Constitution that would abolish corporate personhood and the judicial interpretation that money is speech.
  • On February 9, 2012, the 15th Congressional District Democratic Organization of Michigan passed a resolution that calls upon Congress to propose an amendment to the Constitution that would abolish corporate personhood and the judicial interpretation that money is speech.
  • On March 28, 2012, Gogebic County Democratic Party passed a resolution, affirming its belief that corporate personhood must be abolished by amending the Constitution.


Minnesota

State Resolutions

  • HF0914, introduced on March 7, 2011 to the Minnesota State Legislature, provides that corporations are not natural persons and proposes a constitutional amendment to overturn the Supreme Court’s ruling on Citizens United.
  • SF683, introduced on March 9, 2011 to the Minnesota State Senate, condemns the Supreme Court’s decision on Citizens United and calls for a constitutional amendment to reverse the ruling.

Local Resolutions Passed

  • On March 1, 2011, the Minnesota Democrats passed a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to define an individual as a “natural person” in hopes to abolish corporate personhood.
  • On August 9, 2011, the Minnesota Coalition of Peacemakers passed a resolution seeking to abolish corporate personhood by an amendment to the U.S. Constitution.
  • In October of 2011, the Minnesota Retiree Council of the AFL-CIO passed a resolution to support Move to Amend.
  • On December 13th, 2011, the city council of Duluth, Minnesota passed a resolution in opposition to the Citizens United decision and the legal definition of corporate personhood.
  • On June 11, 2012, the St. Paul City Council passed a resolution supporting an Amendment to the United States Constitution that only human beings, not corporations, are protected by democratic rights.
  • On June 15, 2012, the Minneapolis City Council unanimously passed a resolution calling for the end to corporate personhood.


Mississippi

State Resolutions

  • HC 108, introduced on April 5, 2012 by Representative James Evans, provides for a constitutional convention with the sole purpose of proposing an amendment to the United States Constitution that would abolish the concept of corporate personhood.

Local Resolutions Passed

  • On December 13, 2011, the Jackson City Council passed a resolution supporting a constitutional amendment to overturn the Citizens United decision and clarifying that corporations are not people protected by the First Amendment.
  • On June 2, 2012, the Mississippi Democratic Party declared its support for an Amendment to the Constitution to abolish corporate personhood and the doctrine that money is speech.


Missouri

State Resolutions

  • HCR 38, introduced by Rep Tracy McCreery, calls for a constitutional amendment that clearly states that corporations are not human beings and do not have the same rights as the citizens of the United States.


Montana

State Resolutions

  • HJ 10, introduced by Representative Hill on February 2, 2011, proposes that Congress pass a constitutional amendment to overturn the Citizens United decision.

Local Resolutions Passed

  • On August 23, 2011, the Missoula City Council voted to place a referendum on the 2011 ballot that urges federal and state lawmakers to amend the U.S. Constitution to clearly state “that corporations are not human beings and do not have the same rights as citizens." On November 8, 2011, Missoula voters approved a local ballot referendum urging Congress to propose a constitutional amendment that clearly states that corporations are not people and do not have the same rights as citizens by a three to one margin.
  • On May 2, 2012, the city council of Hot Springs unanimously passed a resolution in support of an amendment to overturn the Citizens United decision, and providing that corporations are not people.


New Hampshire

State Resolutions

  • In May 2004, the Democratic Party of New Hampshire, passed a resolution declaring that "Corporations shall not be considered "persons" protected by the Constitution of the United States or by the Constitutions of the states that so declare; and the rights of individual, natural persons shall be privileged over any and all rights that have been extended to artificial entities."
  • HCR 1, introduced by Rep. Weed and Rep. Car on January 5th, 2011, proposes that Congress pass a constitutional amendment that provides that constitutional rights such as free speech apply to living persons, and not to corporations, for the purpose of electioneering, among others.
  • HR 8, introduced by Rep. Pierce and Rep. Richardson on January 6th, 2011, proposes that Congress pass a constitutional amendment that would limit corporate spending in elections, and thus overturn the Citizens United ruling.

Local Resolutions Passed

  • On March 14, 2012, citizens in a Bradford Town Hall Meeting voted to pass a resolution condemning the Citizens United decision and calling for a constitutional amendment to overturn the Supreme Court’s ruling.


New Jersey

State Resolutions

  • AR 64, introduced on on March 4, 2010, by State Representative Herb Conway, calls on Congress to propose an amendment to the United States Constitution to provide that with regard to corporation campaign spending, a person means only a natural person for First Amendment protection of free speech.
  • SR 47 introduced on Feb 16, 2012 by Senator Jeff Van Drew. Calls on Congress to propose an amendment to the United States Constitution to provide that with regard to corporation campaign spending, a person means only a natural person for First Amendment protection of free speech.

Local Resolutions Passed

  • On April 10, 2012, the Franklin Township Council (Somerset County, NJ) passed a Resolution (#12-167) in support of a constitutional amendment to overturn the Citizens United decision.


New Mexico

State Resolutions

  • Joint Memorial 36, introduced on February 11, 2011 by Rep. Mimi Stewart (D-21), failed by one vote on the House floor. It expresses strong opposition to the Supreme Court’s decision in Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission and call upon the United States congress to propose and send to the states for ratification an amendment to the United States constitution to restore free speech and fair elections to the people of the United States.
  • HM 4, introduced by Representative Stewart, passed in a 38-29 vote in the House on January 30, 2012. SM 3, introduced by Senator Fischmann, passed in a 20-9 vote in the Senate on February 7, 2012. On February 11, 2012, the New Mexico joint legislature passed a resolution calling for Congress to propose a constitutional amendment to overturn the Citizens United decision, becoming the second state in the union to do so.

Local Resolutions Passed

  • On January 11, 2012, citizens in Santa Fe passed a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to overturn the Citizens United decision and clarify that corporations are not people.
  • On February 25, 2012, the Taos City Council passed a resolution condemning the Supreme Court’s decision on Citizens United and supporting a constitutional amendment to overturn the ruling.
  • On April 17, 2012, the Taos County Commission unanimously approved a resolution requesting Congress to propose an amendment to the Constitution to counter the effects of the Citizens United ruling.


New York

State Resolutions

  • K01016, introduced by Assemblyman James Brennan on March 7, 2012, passed the New York State Assembly’s Law Election Committee, awaiting a floor vote, provides that the US Congress to send the states a constitutional amendment to overturn the Citizens United case, which would enable corporate spending in elections.

Local Resolutions Passed

  • In February of 2011, the Essex County Democratic Committee voted to approve a constitutional amendment that would establish money is not speech and that people, not corporations, are people with constitutional rights.
  • In March of 2011, the Progressive Coalition of Northern New York approved the Move to Amend resolution.
  • On December 6, 2011, the Albany Common Council passed a resolution stating that “Corporations are not People”.
  • On December 28, 2011, the Brighton Town Council voted to pass a resolution in support of abolishing corporate personhood.
  • On January 4th, 2012, the city council of New York City passed a resolution “supporting an amendment to the Constitution to provide that corporations are not entitled to the entirety of protections or ‘rights’ of natural persons.”
  • On January 11, 2012, citizens in Buffalo passed a local resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to overturn the Citizens United decision and clarify that corporations are not natural persons.
  • On February 1, 2012, the Common Council of Ithaca, NY voted 8-1 in favor of a resolution calling on Congress to pass an amendment to end corporate personhood.
  • On February 13, 2012, the town board of Danby voted unanimously for a resolution calling on Congress to pass an amendment to end corporate personhood.
  • On March 1, 2012, the city of Troy passed a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to overturn the Citizens United decision and clarifying that corporations are not people.
  • On March 26, 2012, the Yonkers City Council passed a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment providing that corporations are not entitled to the entirety of protections or “rights” of natural persons, specifically so that the expenditure of corporate money to influence the electoral process is no longer a form of constitutionally protected speech.
  • On May 2, 2012, the Allegheny County Council approved a resolution in support of an amendment that would overturn the Citizens United decision.
  • On May 8, 2012, the Mt Kisco Village Board of Trustees unanimously passed a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment that declares corporations are not given the same legal status as people and that corporate spending for influencing elections is not deemed to be a form of speech.
  • On June 6 and 19, 2012, the Tompkins County legislature passed three resolutions on 6/6 and 6/19 calling for campaign finance reform, abolition corporate personhood, and a constitutional amendment to overturn Citizens United.
  • On June 13, the Mount Vernon City Council adopted a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to overturn the Citizens United decision.


North Carolina

Local Resolutions Passed

  • On April 1, 2011, The Alamance County Democrats passed a resolution at their democratic convention, calling for a Constitutional amendment to abolish corporate personhood.
  • On December 10, 2011, the Progressive Democrats of North Carolina passed the Move to Amend model resolution.
  • On January 9, 2012, the Chapel Hill Town Council passed the Move to Amend Resolution stating that corporations are not people and that money is not speech.
  • On January 17, 2012, the Carrboro Board of Alderman unanimously passed a resolution in to clarify that “corporations are not people and money is not speech.”
  • On February 14, 2012, citizens in Asheville passed a local resolution calling for the reversal of the Citizens United decision, stating that corporations are not people protected by the First Amendment.
  • On February 21, 2012, the board of commission of Orange County passed a resolution supporting an amendment to Constitution that would provide that corporations are not people.
  • On April 2, 2012, the Franklin Board of Alderman passed a resolution calling upon the North Carolina General Assembly to petition Congress for a constitutional amendment that would overturn the Supreme Court’s ruling on Citizens United.
  • On April 4, 2012, the Board of Aldermen of Bryson City, NC passed a resolution to support a constitutional amendment to abolish the doctrine that money is speech and that human beings, rather than corporations, are protected by democratic rights.
  • On April 17, 2012, the Highlands Town Council passed a resolution supporting an amendment to the Constitution that would provide that corporations are not people, and that money is not speech.
  • On May 2, 2012, the Alleghany County Council approved a resolution in support of an amendment that would overturn the Citizens United decision.
  • On May 24, 2012, the City Council of Durham supported a constitutional amendment that would “defend democracy from the corrupting effects of corporate power.”
  • On July 3rd 2012, Raleigh N.C passed a resolution condemning Citizens United and calling for a constitutional amendment to overturn the decision by a 6-3 vote.


Ohio

Local Resolutions Passed

  • On February 6, 2012, the city council of Athens unanimously passed a resolution rejecting the Citizens United decision and calling for an amendment to redefine corporate constitutional rights.
  • On February 23, 2012, the Oberlin City Council unanimously approved a resolution calling upon the US Congress and Ohio legislature to create a constitutional amendment that would reverse the Citizens United decision and reinstates that free speech is a right of persons, not corporations.
  • On June 18, 2012, Cleveland Heights City Council passed a resolution calling to abolish corporate personhood and overturn the Supreme Court’s decision in Citizens United.

November 6, 2012 Election

  • Brecksville became the first city in Ohio to pass a Move to Amend initiative placed on the ballot via citizen initiative. Despite active opposition by the power structure in this "conservative" community, the measure passed with 52% of the vote.
  • Newburgh Heights became the first city in Ohio to pass a Move to Amend initiative placed on the ballot by the Mayor and Council. The measure passed by 74%.


Oklahoma

State Resolutions

  • On May 17, 2003, the Oklahoma Democratic Party, at their state convention, approved a resolution opposing corporate personhood.


Oregon

State Resolutions

  • HJM 9, introduced by Representative Phil Barnhart on January 10, 2011, provides that Congress to pass a constitutional amendment that would “restore the First Amendment and fair elections to the people.”

Local Resolutions Passed

  • On June 23, 2011, the Democratic Party of Douglas County, Oregon voted to pass a resolution opposing Corporate Personhood and in support of the Move to Amend organization.
  • On January, 12, 2012, the Portland City Council voted unanimously in favor of a resolution put for by Mayor Sam Adams, which declared that money is not speech and corporations are not people.
  • On February 7, 2012, the Klamath County Democratic Central Committee passed a resolution that supports a constitutional amendment to overturn the Supreme Court’s decision on Citizens United and clarifies that corporations are not people protected by the First Amendment.
  • On February 15th, 2012, the city council of Eugene, Oregon passed a resolution encouraging Congress to pass an amendment to the Constitution that would overturn the Citizens United decision.
  • On March 7, 2012 The Coos Bay City Council passed a local resolution calling for state and federal legislators to support and pursue a constitutional amendment to end corporate personhood.
  • On April 12, 2012, the City Council of Yachats rejected the Citizens United ruling, passing a resolution in affirmation of the belief that money is not speech and that the Constitution protects the rights of human beings.
  • On April 23, 2012, the City Council of the City of West Lin voted to pass a resolution in opposition to corporate personhood.
  • On May 15, 2012, the City Council of Newport passed a resolution in support of a constitutional amendment abolishing corporate personhood and the doctrine that money is not speech.
  • On June 19, 2012 Ashland City Council passed a resolution supporting U.S. Senator Merkley’s effort to amend the Constitution to make clear Congress has authority to regulate campaign finances and expenditures.

November 6, 2012 Election

  • Ashland voters approved a measure stating: "Shall Ashland voters instruct Congress to amend U.S. Constitution to grant only natural persons constitutional rights and limit campaign spending?" Passed by 79.5%.[8]
  • Corvallis voters approved a measure stating: "Shall the City urge elected representatives to support Constitutional Amendment denying artificial entities’ personhood and rejecting money as speech?" Passed by 75%.
  • Eugene voters approved a measure stating: "Shall Congress send to the States constitutional amendment reversing the negative impacts of the Citizens United case and limit independent campaign spending?" Passed by 73%.[9]
  • Lincoln County voters approved a measure stating: "Should citizens urge Congress/Oregon Legislature to amend Constitution to clarify corporation/union political speech rights, allowing campaign finance regulation and limits?" Passed by 77%.[10]


Pennsylvania

State Resolutions

  • HR 653 introduced on March 9, 2010 by Rep. Steve Santarsiero (D-31), expresses disagreement with the Citizens United ruling and calls on the US Congress to call a constitutional convention.
  • Senate Resolution 264, will be introduced shortly by Senator Jim Ferlo, who announced his intention to do so on March 9, 2012. The bill calls to support the nationwide effort to amend the US Constitution to overturn the Citizens United ruling.

Local Resolutions Passed

  • On January 1, 2010, the Lehman City Council passed a resolution condemning the Supreme Court’s decision on Citizens United and supporting a constitutional amendment to reverse the ruling.
  • On December 30, 2011, the Pittsburgh City Council passed a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to abolish corporate personhood and return our elections back to the American people.
  • On February 14, 2012, the town of Lancaster passed a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to overturn the Citizens United decision.
  • On May 2, 2012 Allegheny County, PA passed a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to overturn the Citizens United decision.
  • On May 24, 2012 the Wilkes-Barre City Council voted 4-1 in favor of calling for to overturn the Supreme Court’s Citizens United ruling.
  • On June 25, 2012 the Reading City Council approved a resolution urging lawmakers to amend the U.S. Constitution to abolish so-called corporate personhood.


Rhode Island

State Resolutions

  • H 6156, introduced on May 18, 2010 by Rep. Thomas Winfield, proposes that Congress pass a constitutional amendment to overturn the Citizens United decision.
  • H 8186, introduced on May 27, 2010 by Rep. David Segel (D-2), applies to the Congress of the United States to call a constitutional convention.
  • H7899 was introduced by Speaker of the House Gordon Fox and passed on May 8th. S2656 was introduced by State Senate President Teresa Paiva-Weed and passed on April 25th, 2012. These companion resolutions call for Congress to pass an amendment to overturn the Citizens United decision and its subsequent, related cases.

Local Resolutions Passed

  • On June 7, 2012, the Providence City Council unanimously passed a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to overturn the U.S. Supreme Court decision lifting the federal ban on corporate campaign spending.


South Dakota

State Resolutions

  • HCR 1018 introduced on March 2010, by Rep. Ed Iron Cloud (D-27) and Sen. Jim Bradford (R-27), failed on a 24-43 vote on the day after it was introduced. The resolution urged the Congress and the States to propose a constitutional amendment that would reverse Citizen’s United V. FEC decision.


Vermont

State Resolutions

  • JRS11, introduced January 21, 2011 by Senator Virginia Lyons (D-Chittendon), and passed in the Senate on April 12, 2012 urges the United States Congress to propose an amendment to the United States Constitution, which provides that corporations are not persons under the laws of the United States or any of its jurisdictional subdivisions. The bill passed the House on April 19th, 2012, with a 92-40 vote, which made Vermont the third state in the country – following Hawaii then New Mexico – to ratify a Citizens United-related resolution.

Local Resolutions Passed

  • On February 28, 2011, the town of Lincoln approved a resolution to end corporate personhood in their community.
  • On March 6, 2012, in Albany, citizens voted in favor of a ballot that supports a constitutional amendment to overturn the Citizens United decision and clarify that corporations are not people.
  • On March 6, 2012, at a town hall meeting in Barnet, citizens passed a resolution condemning the Supreme Court’s ruling on Citizens United and called for a constitutional amendment to reverse the decision.
  • On March 6, 2012, in Bolton, citizens nearly unanimously voted to pass a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to overturn the Citizens United decision and clarify that corporations are not people.
  • On March 6, 2012, citizens at a town hall meeting in Brattleboro passed a resolution that condemns the Citizens United decision and supports a constitutional amendment to reverse the Supreme Court ruling.
  • On March 6, 2012, in Brandon, citizens voted to pass a resolution calling for campaign finance reform and urging both the Vermont and US Congresses to support the same resolution. It supports a constitutional amendment to overturn the Citizens United decision.
  • On March 6, 2012, a town hall meeting in Bristol voted to support a resolution that calls for a constitutional amendment to reverse the Supreme Court’s decision on Citizens United and clarify that corporations are not people protected by the First Amendment.
  • On March 6, 2012, citizens in Burlington passed a resolution that calls for a constitutional amendment to overturn the Citizens United decision and clarify that corporations are not people.
  • On March 6, 2012, in Calais, citizens at a town hall meeting voted to pass a resolution that condemns the Supreme Court’s decision on Citizens United and supports a constitutional amendment to reverse the ruling.
  • On March 6, 2012, a town hall meeting in Charlotte voted in favor of a resolution that calls for a constitutional amendment to overturn the Citizens United decision and clarify that corporations are not people.
  • On March 6, 2012, citizens in Chester passed a resolution that supports a constitutional amendment to reverse the Supreme Court’s decision on Citizens United.
  • On March 6, 2012, in Chittenden, citizens at a town hall meeting voted in favor of a resolution that condemns the Supreme Court’s decision on Citizens United and supports a constitutional amendment to overturn the ruling.
  • On March 6, 2012, a town hall meeting in Craftsbury voted to pass a resolution supporting a constitutional amendment that would overturn the Citizens United decision and clarify that corporations are not people.
  • On March 6, 2012, citizens in a town hall meeting in East Montpelier passed a resolution that condemns the Supreme Court’s rulings on Citizens United and calls for a constitutional amendment to reverse the ruling.
  • On March 6, 2012, in Fayston, citizens passed a resolution that favors a constitutional amendment to overturn the Citizens United decision and clarify that corporations are not people protected by the First Amendment.
  • On March 6, 2012, a town hall meeting in Fletcher voted in favor of a resolution that supports a constitutional amendment to reverse the Supreme Court’s decision on Citizens United.
  • On March 6, 2012, citizens at a town hall meeting in Granville voted to pass a resolution that condemns the Supreme Court’s rulings on Citizens United and supports a constitutional amendment to reverse the decision.
  • On March 6, 2012, in Greensboro, citizens passed a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to overturn the Citizens United decision and clarify that corporations are not people protected by the First Amendment.
  • On March 6, 2012, citizens in Hardwick unanimously voted in favor of a resolution that calls for a constitutional amendment to reverse the Supreme Court’s decision on Citizens United.
  • On March 6, 2012, a town hall meeting in Hartford voted to pass a resolution that condemns the Supreme Court’s decision on Citizens United and supports a constitutional amendment to reverse the ruling.
  • On March 6, 2012, in Hartland, citizens passed a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to overturn the Citizens United decision and clarify that corporations are not people.
  • On March 6, 2012, citizens at a town hall meeting in Hinesburg voted in favor of a resolution that condemns the Supreme Court’s ruling on Citizens United and supports a constitutional amendment to overturn the decision.
  • On March 6, 2012, a town hall meeting in Jericho voted to pass a resolution supporting a constitutional amendment to overturn the Citizens United decision and clarify that corporations are not people protected by the First Amendment.
  • On March 6, 2012, citizens at a town hall meeting in Marlboro voted in favor of a resolution that supports a constitutional amendment to reverse the Citizens United decision and clarifies that corporations are not people.
  • On March 6, 2012, in Marshfield, citizens passed a resolution that condemns the Supreme Court’s decision on Citizens United and supports a constitutional amendment that reverses the ruling.
  • On March 6, 2012, a town hall meeting in Middletown Springs voted in favor of a resolution that supports a constitutional amendment to reverse the Supreme Court’s decision on Citizens United and clarifies that corporations are not people protected by the First Amendment.
  • On March 6, 2012, citizens at a town hall meeting in Monkton voted to pass a resolution calling for a reversal of the Supreme Court’s decision on Citizens United.
  • On March 6, 2012, in Montgomery, a town hall meeting passed a resolution that condemns the Supreme Court’s decision on Citizens United and favors a constitutional amendment to reverse the ruling.
  • On March 6, 2012, a town hall meeting in Montpelier voted in favor of a resolution that supports a constitutional amendment to overturn the Citizens United decision and clarifies that corporations are not people.
  • On March 6, 2012, citizens in Moretown voted to pass a resolution that favors a constitutional amendment to reverse the Supreme Court’s ruling on Citizens United.
  • On March 6, 2012, in Mt. Holly, citizens at a town hall meeting passed a resolution that condemns the Supreme Court’s decision on Citizens United and supports a constitutional amendment to reverse the ruling.
  • On March 6, 2012, a town hall meeting in Newbury voted in favor of a resolution that calls for a constitutional amendment to overturn the Citizens United decision and clarify that corporations are not people protected by the First Amendment.
  • On March 6, 2012, citizens at a town hall meeting in Newfane voted to pass a resolution that condemns the Supreme Court’s ruling on Citizens United and favors a constitutional amendment to reverse the decision.
  • On March 6, 2012, in Norwich, citizens passed a resolution that supports a constitutional amendment to reverse the Citizens United decision and clarify that corporations are not people.
  • On March 6, 2012, a town hall meeting in Peru voted to pass a resolution that condemns the Supreme Court’s decision on Citizens United and favors a constitutional amendment that would overturn the ruling.
  • On March 6, 2012, citizens in Plainfield voted in favor of a resolution that calls for a constitutional amendment to reverse the Supreme Court’s ruling on Citizens United and clarifies that corporations are not people protected by the First Amendment.
  • On March 6, 2012, at a town hall meeting in Putney, on two ballots, citizens unanimously passed a resolution that condemns the Supreme Court’s decision on Citizens United and favors a constitutional amendment to overturn the ruling.
  • On March 6, 2012, in Randolph, citizens at a town hall meeting voted to pass a resolution that supports a constitutional amendment to overturn the Citizens United decision.
  • On March 6, 2012, a town hall meeting in Richmond voted in favor of a resolution that condemns the Citizens United decision and calls for a constitutional amendment to reverse the Supreme Court’s ruling.
  • On March 6, 2012, at a town hall meeting in Ripton, citizens unanimously passed a resolution that supports a constitutional amendment to overturn the Supreme Court’s ruling on Citizens United and clarifies that corporations are not people.
  • On March 6, 2012, in Rochester, citizens voted to pass a resolution that condemns the Supreme Court’s ruling on Citizens United and favors a constitutional amendment to reverse the decision.
  • On March 6, 2012, citizens at a town hall meeting in Roxbury voted in favor of a resolution that supports a constitutional amendment to reverse the Supreme Court’s decision on Citizens United.
  • On March 6, 2012, a town hall meeting in Rutland City passed a resolution that favors a constitutional amendment to overturn the Citizens United decision and clarifies that corporations are not people protected by the First Amendment.
  • On March 6, 2012, in Rutland Town, citizens voted to pass a resolution condemning the Supreme Court’s ruling on Citizens United and support a constitutional amendment to reverse the decision.
  • On March 6, 2012, citizens in Sharon voted in favor of a resolution that supports a constitutional amendment to reverse the Supreme Court’s decision on Citizens United.
  • On March 6, 2012, a town hall meeting in Shelburne passed a resolution that favors a constitutional amendment to overturn the Supreme Court’s ruling on Citizens United and clarifies that corporations are not people.
  • On March 6, 2012, citizens at a town hall meeting in Shrewsbury voted to pass a resolution that condemns the Supreme Court’s decision on Citizens United and favors a constitutional amendment to overturn the ruling.
  • On March 6, 2012, in South Burlington, citizens voted in favor of a resolution that supports a constitutional amendment to reverse the Supreme Court’s ruling on Citizens United.
  • On March 6, 2012, a town hall meeting in Starksboro passed a resolution that favors a constitutional amendment to overturn the Citizens United decision and clarifies that corporations are not people protected by the First Amendment.
  • On March 6, 2012, citizens in Sudbury unanimously voted in favor of a resolution that condemns the Supreme Court’s ruling on Citizens United and supports a constitutional amendment to reverse the decision.
  • On March 6, 2012, in Thetford Center, citizens at a town hall meeting voted to pass a resolution that favors a constitutional amendment to overturn the Citizens United decision and clarify that corporations are not people.
  • On March 6, 2012, a town hall meeting in Tunbridge passed a resolution that condemns the Supreme Court’s decision on Citizens United and supports a constitutional amendment to reverse the ruling.
  • On March 6, 2012, citizens at a town hall meeting in Underhill voted in favor of a resolution that supports a constitutional amendment to overturn the Citizens United decision.
  • On March 6, 2012, in Waitsfield, citizens passed a resolution that favors a constitutional amendment to reverse the Supreme Court’s ruling on Citizens United and clarifies that corporations are not people protected by the First Amendment.
  • On March 6, 2012, at a town hall meeting in Walden, citizens voted to pass a resolution that condemns the Supreme Court’s decision on Citizens United and favors a constitutional amendment to overturn the ruling.
  • On March 6, 2012, citizens in Waltham voted in favor of a resolution that supports a constitutional amendment to overturn the Supreme Court’s ruling on Citizens United.
  • On March 6, 2012, a town hall meeting in Warren passed a resolution that condemns the Supreme Court’s ruling on Citizens United and favors a constitutional amendment to reverse the decision.
  • On March 6, 2012, in West Haven, citizens voted to pass a resolution supporting a constitutional amendment to reverse the Citizens United decision and clarifying that corporations are not people.
  • On March 6, 2012, at a town hall meeting in Williamstown, citizens voted in favor of a resolution that supports a constitutional amendment to overturn the Supreme Court’s decision on Citizens United.
  • On March 6, 2012, citizens in Williston passed a resolution that condemns the Supreme Court’s ruling on Citizens United and favors a constitutional amendment to reverse the decision.
  • On March 6, 2012, in Windsor, citizens at a town hall meeting voted to pass a resolution that supports a constitutional amendment to reverse the Citizens United decision and clarifies that corporations are not people protected by the First Amendment.
  • On March 6, 2012, a town hall meeting in Winooski voted in favor of a resolution that supports a constitutional amendment to overturn the Supreme Court’s decision on Citizens United.
  • On March 6, 2012, citizens in Woodbury passed a resolution that condemns the Supreme Court’s ruling on Citizens United and favors a constitutional amendment to reverse the decision.
  • On March 6, 2012, at a town hall meeting in Woodstock, citizens supported a resolution that calls for a constitutional amendment to reverse the Supreme Court’s decision on Citizens United and clarifies that corporations are not people.
  • On March 6, 2012, in Worcester, citizens voted to pass a resolution that supports a constitutional amendment to overturn the Supreme Court’s ruling on Citizens United.


Virginia

'State Resolutions

  • On December 11, 2011, the Democratic Party of Virginia ratified a resolution against the Citizens United ruling, which provides “that corporations are not entitled to the same rights in our elections as people” and that “the Supreme Court’s ruling in Citizens United was incorrectly decided.”
  • On June 2, 2012, the Democratic Party of Virginia State Convention declared support for a constitutional amendment to overturn the Citizens United decision. View the document of support here.

Local Resolutions Passed

  • On June 4, 2012, the City Council of Charlottesville passed a resolution in support of a constitutional amendment overturning the Citizens United ruling.


Washington

State Resolutions

  • SJM 8027, introduced on February 4, 2010 by Senator Ken Jacobsen (D-46), expresses disagreement with the Citizens United ruling and calls on the US Congress to pass a constitutional amendment.
  • SJM 8007, introduced on February 16, 2011 by State Senator Adam Kline, requests a constitutional amendment declaring that corporations are not persons under U.S. law.
  • On April 30, 2011, the Washington State Democratic Party passed a resolution entitled “Amending the U.S. Constitution to Reserve Constitutional Rights for People, not Corporations.” The resolution calls on the state legislature to pass a joint resolution urging Congress “to pass and send to the states for ratification a constitutional amendment to establish that a corporation shall not be considered a person eligible for rights accorded to human beings under the U.S. Constitution.” The resolution goes on to say that the amendment should stipulate that “the use of money to influence elections or the acts of public officials shall not be considered a protected form of speech.”

Local Resolutions Passed

  • On December 1, 2011, the Jefferson County Democratic Party passed a resolution supporting a constitutional amendment to reverse the Supreme Court’s ruling on Citizens United.
  • On March 5, 2012, the Port Townsend City Council unanimously passed a Municipal Government resolution that condemns the Supreme Court’s ruling on Citizens United and supports a constitutional amendment to overturn the ruling.
  • On April 23, 2012, the Jefferson County Board of Commissioners passed a resolution in support of an amendment to the United State Constitution to abolish corporate personhood.
  • On May 14, 2012, the Seattle City Council unanimously passed a resolution condemning the Citizens United decision and calling upon Congress to pass a constitutional amendment to overturn it.
  • On June 4, 2012, the City Council of the City of Bellingham passed a resolution in support of amending the US Constitution to declare “that corporations are not entitled to the constitutional rights of natural persons, and further to ensure that the expenditure of corporate money to influence the electoral process is no longer a form on constitutionally protected speech.”


West Virginia

Local Resolutions

  • On January 12, 2012, the Martinsburg City Council adopted a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to reverse the Supreme Court’s ruling on Citizens United and clarifying that corporations are not people.
  • On January 26, 2012, the Jefferson County Commission passed a resolution that condemns the Supreme Court’s decision on Citizens United and supports a constitutional amendment to reverse the ruling.
  • On March 5, 2012, Charles Town passed a resolution calling on the US Congress to amend the constitution to state that only living persons are endowed with constitutional rights and that money is not the same as free speech.
  • On April 3, 2012, the Saint Albans City Council unanimously passed a resolution that condemns the Supreme Court’s decision on Citizens United and presses for a constitutional amendment to overturn the ruling.


Wisconsin

State Resolutions

  • On March 6, 2011, the Democratic Party of Wisconsin adopted a resolution in support of a constitutional amendment overturning the Citizens United v. FEC case.
  • On February 9th, 2012, Representatives Mark Pocan and Chris Taylor introduced legislation (yet to be numbered) that provides that Congress amend the Constitution to overturn the Citizens United decision and related cases.

Local Resolutions Passed

  • On March 28, 2011, the Milwaukee County Democrats passed a resolution that calls for amending the U.S. Constitution to make clear that corporations are not persons and that money is not speech.
  • In April of 2011, 84% of voters in Madison, WI approved a resolution containing the following:

“Shall the City of Madison adopt the following resolution: RESOLVED, the City of Madison, Wisconsin, calls for reclaiming democracy from the corrupting effects of undue corporate influence by amending the United States Constitution to establish that:

  1. Only human beings, not corporations, are entitled to constitutional rights, and
  2. Money is not speech, and therefore regulating political contributions and spending is not equivalent to limiting political speech.”
  • On April 1, 2011, American Federation of State, County, and Municipal Employees (AFSCME) 40 passed a resolution advocating for a constitutional amendment to oppose corporate personhood, and to declare that money is not speech.
  • On April 3, 2012, voters in West Allis passed a ballot resolution that rejects the Supreme Court’s decision on Citizens United and calls for a constitutional amendment to reverse the ruling.
  • On April 5, 2011, Dane County voters approved the following resolution by 78%:

“Should the US Constitution be amended to establish that regulating political contributions and spending is not equivalent to limiting freedom of speech, by stating that only human beings, not corporations, are entitled to constitutional rights?”

  • On June 4, 2012, the common council of Wisconsin passed the Move to Amend model resolution, providing that corporations are not people and money is not speech.
  • On June 12, 2012, the Monona City Council passed a resolution calling on Congress to pass a constitutional amendment to overturn the Citizens United decision.
  • On November 6, 2012, Eau Claire residents approved a measure placed on the ballot by their City Council stating: "Should the US Constitution be amended to establish that regulating political contributions and spending is not equivalent to limiting freedom of speech, by stating that only human beings, not corporations, unions, or PACs, are entitled to constitutional rights?" Passed by 71%.


Wyoming

Local Resolutions Passed

  • On May 15, 2012, the Sheridan County Democrats passed a resolution providing that corporations are not people and money is not speech.

Website

Articles and resources

Move To Amend -- November 2012 Ballot Measure Roundup

People For The American Way -- Citizens United v. FEC Constitutional Remedies: List of local, state and federal resolution efforts

Common Cause -- Amend 2012 Ballot Measure Victories

Related SourceWatch articles

References

  1. Rebekah Wilce, "Direct Democracy: Results of Ballot Propositions Across the Country" P.R. Watch, November 7, 2012
  2. People For The American Way "Citizens United v. FEC Constitutional Remedies: List of local, state and federal resolution efforts" PFAW website, updated June 17, 2012
  3. Move To Amend -- November 2012 Ballot Measure Roundup
  4. "November 6, 2012 Election Results" SFelections.org, accessed November 13, 2012
  5. "Semi-Official Results 11/06/12 General Election" Contra Costa Elections Division, accessed November 13, 2012
  6. Chelsea Sheasley, "Many communities will see more than 3 ballot questions" The MetroWest Daily News, November 5, 2012
  7. "Massachusetts ballot questions overview" The Boston Globe, accessed November 11, 2012
  8. "Unofficial Election Results" Jackson County, Oregon website; accessed November 13, 2012
  9. "Current Election Results" Lane County, Oregon website; accessed November 13, 2012
  10. "Election Results" Lincoln County Clerk, accessed November 13, 2012

External resources

External articles

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