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Washington (state) and coal

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This article is part of the Coal Issues portal on SourceWatch, a project of CoalSwarm and the Center for Media and Democracy. See here for help on adding material to CoalSwarm.

Contents

Introduction

Washington coal mines produced 2.6 million tons of coal in 2006 (0.2% of the U.S. total); Washington ranks 21st out of the 50 states in terms of coal production.[1] The coal industry employed 673 miners in Washington in 2006, all of whom were unionized, and all of whom were engaged in surface mining.[2]

Washington has one coal-fired generating station, the Centralia Power Plant, with 1460 MW of capacity, representing 5.2% of the state's total electric generating capacity; Washington ranks 38th out of the 50 states in terms of coal energy production.[3] In 2006, Washington's coal-fired power plants produced 12.1 million tons of CO2, 2,000 tons of sulfur dioxide, and 8,000 tons of nitrogen oxide; coal-fired power plants were responsible for 15.4% of the state's total CO2 emissions.[4] In 2005, Washington emitted 12.5 tons of CO2 per person, somewhat more than half the U.S. average.[5] This lower level of CO2 emissions is due largely to the fact that hydroelectric power makes up 74.9% of the state's generating capacity.[3]

History

The state's first coal mine opened in 1853, near Bellingham. By 1880, all of the state's limited number of economically feasible coal deposits were being mined. Coal production reached 2 million tons per year by 1900, and 4 million tons by 1918.

During the 1910's and 20's, hydroelectric dams began to be built on a large scale in Washington, culminating with President Roosevelt's New Deal in the 1930's, and with the completion of the Grand Coulee Dam (which remains the fourth biggest hydroelectric plant in the world) in 1942. Washington's coal industry suffered dramatically as a result of the rise of hydroelectricity: production dropped below 2 million tons by the early 30's, dropped further to 1 million tons in the late 40's, and reached a lowpoint of 37,000 tons in 1970.

Since then, the construction of the Centralia Power Plant - completed in 1972-73 - has dramatically revitalized Washington's coal mining industry. Production has totaled 4-5 million tons per year since the late 1970's. However, deteriorating conditions at the Centralia mine - the state's largest - led TransAlta to close the mine in Nov. 2006; Washington's coal production thus declined from 5.3 million tons in 2005 to 2.5 million tons in 2006.[6][7]

In May 2007, Gov. Gregoire signed Substitute Senate Bill 6001, which committed the state to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to 1990 levels by 2020, and to 50% below 1990 levels by 2050.[8] Consequently, in Nov. 2007, a state regulator rejected Energy Northwest's application to build the coal-fired Pacific Mountain Energy Center near Kalama, arguing that the company's proposed CO2 reduction system “is a plan to make a plan” and “fails to meet the minimum requirements of the law” that the state passed in May. Currently, Edison International and three power co-ops are proposing to build a carbon capture and storage plant - the Wallula Energy Resource Center - near Gig Harbor, WA; the permitting process with the state EPA has not yet begun.

A study released in July 2010 by the Civil Society Institute argued that it was technically and economically viable to retire all coal and nuclear based power in seven Western states, including Washington.

The region covered in the study was said to have enough renewable sources of energy and, combined with energy conservation measures, the transition away from coal and nuclear could take place within 30 years time. In this scenario, according to the Civil Society Institute study, the entire Northwest could retire 11,000 megawatts of coal-fired power and add at least 12,000 megawatts of onshore wind power.[9]

Legislative issues

On January 25, 2010 the Washington legislature introduced a bill that would eliminate a state tax exemption for Washington's only coal-fired power plant in Centralia. The TransAlta Corporation, based in Canada, currently receives a tax break of about $4 million annually. The tax break, enacted in the 1990s, was passed in exchange for the plant to burn locally mined coal. However, the Centralia coal mine closed in 2006. Proponents of the legislation argue that TransAlta is receiving tax breaks despite "violating [Washington's] stated energy policies". [10]

On March 29, 2010 the Sierra Club announced that it was continuing pressure on Washington's legislature to impose the tax. "We are proposing a solution which will actually create jobs in Washington by taking money which currently goes to the TranAlta coal plant, our state's largest polluter, and putting it into clean energy workforce development investments," said Ethan Bergerson, associate regional representative for the Sierra Club's Coal-Free Washington Campaign.[11]

In early February 2011, Washington state lawmaker Marko Liias proposed a bill that would require the Centralia plant to be shut by December 31, 2015, or by December 31, 2017, if Bonneville Power Administration determines the unit is needed until then for reliability reasons. The lawmaker stated that the plant was harmful to human and environmental health. A spokesperson for the plant stated that such a time line was not feasible. [12]

Citizen activism

September 2009: Appeal Filed to Challenge TransAlta plant

On September 28, 2009 Earthjustice, on behalf of the Sierra Club, National Parks Conservation Association and the Northwest Environmental Defense Center, filed an appeal to challenge the renewal of an air pollution permit for the TransAlta coal-fired plant located in Centralia, Washington. The groups are asking for tighter controls on nitrogen oxide emissions from the plant.[13]

Doug Howell, senior representative for the Sierra Club’s Coal-Free Northwest campaign commented:

In Washington state, TransAlta, as the number one source of global warming, mercury and haze pollution, has had a free ride for too long. This old, filthy coal-fired plant must be seen for what it is and now is the time to hold the coal plant accountable to fulfill its obligations to address known pollutants to protect our health, environment and economy.[14]

The Northwest Power and Conservation Council held a meeting in Seattle in late September, 2009 to discuss the region's future energy demands through 2030. During one of the hearings a citizen group called 'Raging Grannies' disrupted the meeting by singing a protest song called No More Coal to the tune of Patsy Cline's Side by Side. [15]

Activists in Portland, Oregon gathered at the final public hearing on the regional power plan held by Northwest Power and Conservation Council in mid-October, 2009 to voice their concerns about the future of carbon emissions in the Northwest. NW Energy Coalition and the Sierra Club's Beyond Coal Campaign, among others, brought citizens out to testify. The coalition's goal is to insert language in the regional power plan that puts a price on carbon emissions, making it expensive to pollute. The plan is set to be finalized by early next year.[16]

The Sierra Club announced their coal free Washington website on November 23, 2009, which challenges the TransAlta coal plant in an attempt to shut it down and get coal-plants out of Washington State entirely. The Sierra Club highlighted that a report from Physicians for Social Responsibility, which stated that coal is linked to four of the top five causes of death in the country.[17]

April 2011: Washington college students say no to coal export plans

On April 22, 2011 Evergreen University students in Olympia celebrated Earth Day by delivering over 7,000 petition signatures gathered by Rainforest Action Network and Washington PIRG to Gov. Chris Gregoire’s office. The petition called on Gregoire to be a clean energy leader and stop coal exports in the northwest. The group also delivered a letter signed by student government associations from campuses all over Washington asking Gregoire to act on the coal exports.[18]

September 2011: Activists shine a light on Washington Coal Ports in Seattle

In September 2011 activists in Seattle shined a spotlight with a mountain background that stated, "Keep Washington Beautiful, No Coal Exports." The group, including at least on RAN activist, shined the stenciled spotlight on iconic images around the city, including the Space Needle. The group said they were protesting the proposed coal export terminals in the state, including Millennium Bulk Logistics Longview Terminal in Longview and Gateway Pacific Terminal near Ferndale, Washington.[19]

October 2011: Group to sue SSA Marine over land clearing for Cherry Point project

It was announced in October 2011 that RE Sources for Sustainable Communities filed a 60-day notice of intent to sue Pacific International Terminals, Inc., SSA Marine's subsidiary corporation that was created to develop the proposed shipping terminal at Cherry Point.

RE Sources Executive Director Bob Ferris contended that SSA Marine violated the Clean Water Act when it cleared trees on the terminal site. Company spokesmen have admitted that the company was wrong in clearing roadways for geotechnical drilling equipment without obtaining permits to do so.[20]

October 2011: Spokane environmentalists upset over coal trains

In October 2011 concerned environmental groups in the Spokane, Washington area held a public forum about coal trains in that are to travel through the area. The groups began speaking out about proposals that could see dozens of trains loaded with coal destined for Asia move through the city every day. The groups fear that coal dust and increased diesel emissions will damage human health, while increased rail traffic will make for more dangerous intersections.[21] The Sierra Club was involved in raising public awareness and organizing the forum.[22]

November 2011: 13 State Senators ask State to look at coal train impacts

In November 2011, 13 Washington State Senators wrote a joint letter to the Washington State DOE and Whatcom County. In their letter the senators point to potential problems including health related and adverse economic impacts that could be felt by the communities along the rail corridor which includes most of the states population. The senators explicitly request that the process examine these issues.[23]

March 2012: Washington State City Council passes coal train traffic resolution

On March 17, 2012, Washougal City Council voted 7-0 to pass a resolution requesting that Washougal be a “party of record” for the Gateway Pacific Terminal Project in Whatcom county and the Millennium Project in Cowlitz county. The resolution requested that impacts along the rail line through Washougal be included in the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), and also urged the State Department of Ecology, the Army Cops of Engineers, as well as both Whatcom and Cowlitz counties, to conduct an EIS scoping hearing for each project in a Clark County location.[24]

May 2012: Activists rally in Portland against exporting coal from Northwest ports

On May 7, 2012 several hundred activists gathered in Portland's Pioneer Courthouse Square to oppose the export of Montana and Wyoming coal from Northwest ports. Activist Robert F. Kennedy Jr., chief prosecuting attorney for Hudson Riverkeeper and president of the Waterkeeper Alliance, spoke to the crowd. Kennedy said that coal would corrupt politicians, damage health and the environment and "turn government agencies into the sock puppets of the industries they're supposed to regulate."[25]

May 2012: Seattle City Council opposes coal export ports

On May 29, 2012 the Seattle City Council unanimously passed a resolution opposing the development of coal-export terminals in Washington state after raising concerns about increased train traffic and potential harm to health and the environment. The coal would be mined in the Powder River Basin.[26]

May 2012: Washington state Democrats pass export resolutions

In May 2012 Democrats in Washington passed two resolutions on coal exports in the state. One, submitted by San Juan County, asked Democrats to oppose construction of the Gateway Pacific Terminal at Cherry Point. The second passed which called for a programmatic environmental impact statement to be conducted to study the potential impacts of building coal-exporting terminals throughout the Pacific Northwest, rather than one project-specific study looking at the Gateway Pacific Terminal project.[27]

July 2011: Northwest coal train traffic could spike, foes warn

On July 11, 2012 the Western Organization of Resource Councils released a report which stated that roughly 60 coal trains per day could potentially pass through cities including Billings, Montana and Spokane, Wash. Smaller increases would be seen in Seattle, Portland and other major cities across the region.

The group contested that this could tie up rail lines, cause environmental problems and leave local governments on the hook for costly rail crossing improvements.[28]

August 2012: Coal protesters occupy state Capitol to protest proposed coal mine set to export

Coal Export Action: Reclaim the Rotunda

On August 13, 2012 protesters opposed to coal development in Montana occupied the state Capitol in Helena, the first day of a week-long protest aimed at elected officials to push them to block future development leases.

The protesters, led by a Missoula based group called the Blue Skies Campaign, billed the "Coal Export Action sit-in" as a non-violent protest. The group hopes to convince the Montana Land Board to reject development of coal in eastern Montana's Otter Creek, or at a minimum delay action on the issue while more studies are undertaken. Seven activists were initially arrested but others vowed to continue their actions. However, by the end of the first week of protest a total of 23 activists were arrested.[29][30][31]

Northwest ports to be used to export Powder River Basin coal to Asian markets

For more information on the proposed port developments in the western United States please visit the Coal exports from northwest United States ports article.

Proposed Millennium Bulk Logistics Longview Terminal

In September 2010 Peabody Energy announced that "Coal's best days are ahead." Peabody stated that exports of coal from the Powder River Basin in Montana and Wyoming will be central to its expansion goals. The Oregonian in September 2010 reported that Northwest ports, and in particular ports in Portland, Oregon, may be used in the future to export coal to Asia. The Port of Portland said it doesn't have the space for coal exports in the short-term, but its consultants cited coal as a potential long-term market if it adds terminals on West Hayden Island.

Coal Export Threatens the Northwest.

In early November 2010 Australia-based Ambre Energy asked Cowlitz County officials in southern Washington State, which borders Oregon, to approve a port redevelopment that would allow for the export of 5 million tons of coal annually. On November 23 Cowlitz County officials approved the permit for the port redevelopment, which is to be located at the private Chinook Ventures port in Longview, Washington. Coal terminals also are proposed at two other sites along the Columbia River.[32]

Coalition Protests Ambre Energy's Push for Coal Exports.

Environmentalists stated that they would oppose any such actions, arguing that coal contributes to pollution and global warming.[33] Early discussion of how many jobs the port would produce was roughly twenty total.[34]

Proposed Northwest Coal Export Locations.

In November 2010 Powder River Basin coal producer Cloud Peak Energy CEO Colin Marshall stated that a coal port on the West Coast was "absolutely more than a pipedream."

Other Powder River Basin producers, including top US coal miner Peabody Energy, have talked about the potential for a new export facility on the West Coast, with Oregon and Washington being mentioned as the top locations of choice.[35]

Groups including the Sierra Club and Columbia Riverkeeper have vowed to stop the industry's expansion into Asia, a market currently dominated by coal from Australia and Indonesia.[36]

It was announced in early October 2012 that a joint environmental review of the proposed coal port would be conducted by Cowlitz County, the Washington Department of Ecology and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.[37]

Proposed Terminal: Gateway Pacific Terminal

The Gateway Pacific Terminal is a proposed terminal at Cherry Point near Ferndale, Washington, and would have a maximum capacity of about 54 million tons. On February 28, 2011, SSA Marine applied for state and federal permits for the $500 million terminal, triggering formal environmental review. If approved, the terminal would begin construction in early 2013 and operations in 2015.[38]

On March 1, 2011, Seattle-based SSA Marine announced it had entered into an agreement with St. Louis-based Peabody Energy to export up to 24 million metric tons of coal per year through the Gateway Pacific Terminal. Goldman Sachs owns a portion of SSA Marine's parent company. SSA Marine developed a subsidiary Pacific International Terminals to develop the Gateway Pacific Terminal. According to Peabody, the terminal in Whatcom County would serve as the West Coast hub for exporting Peabody's coal from the Powder River Basin of Wyoming and Montana to Asian markets. The project would ramp up potential U.S. coal exports to Asia from Washington state. Another coal export terminal proposed in Longview, the Millennium Bulk Logistics Longview Terminal in southwest Washington, has drawn environmental opposition. That Millennium Bulk Logistics terminal would be a joint venture between Australia-based Ambre Energy and Arch Coal.[39]

Environmental groups have appealed to Washington's Shoreline Hearings Board over a permit awarded for the port by Cowlitz County commissioners.[39]

According to Gateway Pacific Terminal's website the company plans on providing a "highly efficient portal for American producers to export dry bulk commodities such as grain, potash and coal to Asian markets." Additionally, the site contends that the "Gateway project will generate about 4,000 jobs and about $54 million a year in tax revenue for state and local services. Once in full operation, it's estimated that Gateway will provide almost $10 million a year in tax revenue, create about 280 permanent family-wage jobs directly, and nearly 1,400 additional jobs through terminal purchases and employee spending."[40]

Port of St. Helens potential candidate for coal export to Asia

In June 2011, The Oregonian reported that the Port of St. Helens in Columbia City, Oregon was being eyed as a potential Northwest port that would export coal to Asian countries. It was also reported that Columbia Riverkeeper, which opposes coal export, asked a judge to require St. Helens Port to release all of its coal-related documents. In a response, a lawyer for the port stated that doing so would violate a confidentiality agreement and "would result in the greatest harm to the public interest which can be imagined -- a loss of jobs in our community."[41]

Oregon Democratic Gov. John Kitzhaber, wrote in a statement to The Oregonian that the terminal "should not happen in the dead of night. We must have an open, vigorous public debate before any projects move forward."[41]

In January 2012 The Oregonian reported that Kinder Morgan Energy Partners would develop a dry bulk export terminal at the Port of St. Helens' Port Westward industrial park, using rail lines and building facilities to store and load coal.

Ambre Energy also announced that their subsidiary Pacific Transloading would ship 3.5 million metric tons of coal a year with potential to ship as much as 8 million metric tons with port approval. Coal would be shipped on covered barges, received at Port Westward and directly loaded onto about 50 ocean-going ships a year. Pacific Transloading would ship 3.5 million metric tons of coal a year with potential to ship as much as 8 million metric tons with port approval the company stated.[42]

On January 25, 2012 Port of St. Helens commissioners approved lease options for two coal terminals to Port Westward. The five-member commission unanimously approved a lease option from Pacific Transloading, a subsidiary of Australian coal company Ambre Energy, to operate a coal barge unloading dock at Port Westward. Commissioners voted 4-1 to approve a lease option from Kinder Morgan Energy Partners to build what could be the largest coal terminal on the U.S. West Coast.[43]

Port of Coos Bay in Oregon considers coal exports

In July 2011, it was reported that the port in Coos Bay, Oregon was considering coal exports. "We are in discussions with coal developers and have entered into nondisclosure agreements with those companies," Port of Coos Bay CEO Jeff Bishop. "We don't want anyone to be surprised."

Bishop stated the arrival of one coal train per day would create 100 ship calls per year. However, coal exports would bring too many ships for the cargo terminal to handle, stated Bishop. "If any coal terminal is developed in Coos Bay, it would have to be a stand-alone terminal."[44]

In August 2012 Democratic Rep. Peter DeFazio said he has few qualms about shipping coal to Asia through the Port of Coos Bay.

Rep. Peter DeFazio said that trying to block plans to ship coal to Asia won't stop countries like South Korea from burning coal to produce electricity. He added that free trade agreements make it illegal for the U.S. to block coal exports to South Korea.[45]

Railroad company looks at Port of Grays Harbor in Washington State for coal exports

It was reported in July 2011 that a railroad was looking at a Port of Grays Harbor terminal in Hoquiam, Washington for a terminal to ship coal to China. RailAmerica Vice Predident Gary Lewis told The Daily World of Aberdeen the idea would require further study and the project is several years from being completed.

RailAmerica owns the Puget Sound and Pacific Railroad that serves Grays Harbor. The port's potential coal export terminal, located on a former log yard, could bring another 75 ship calls a year to Grays Harbor.[46]

In August 2011 it was announced that RailAmerica was canceling its plan for a coal storage and export facility at the port's Terminal 3. The company said they believed there are other uses for the terminal that are more likely to generate jobs, tax revenues and business for the port and for the company, said Gary Lewis. As such plans to export coal from Grays Harbor were cancelled.[47]

Coal train spill through Columbia River Gorge

In July 2012 a train transporting coal derailed and spilled 31 cars of coal in the Eastern Washington town of Mesa, in Franklin County. Opponents of increased coal shipments through the Northwest pointed to the spill as an example of the risk posed by increased coal transports through the region.[48][49]

Proposed coal plants

Active

  • none

Cancelled

Coal lobbying groups

Coal power companies

Existing coal plants

Washington has one coal-fired power plant, with 1460 MW of capacity - representing 5.2% of the state's total electric generating capacity:[3][50][51]

Plant Name County Owner Year(s) Built Capacity 2007 CO2 Emissions 2006 SO2 Emissions SO2/MW Rank
Centralia Lewis TransAlta 1972, 1973 1460 MW 12,100,000 tons 1,668 tons 264

This one plant represents 15.4% of the state's total CO2 emissions.[5]

For a map of existing coal plants in the state, see the bottom of this page.

Centralia to cut some emissions

In April 2009, TransAlta Corp. agreed to reduce Centralia's mercury and nitrogen oxide emissions. Washington's only coal-fired power plant will reduce mercury pollution by 50 percent and its NOx pollution by 20 percent in 2009. The company estimates the reductions will cost between $20 million and $30 million.[52]

The deal was brokered confidentially by officials from Governor Gregoire's office and the state Ecology Department. Critics say the process should have gone through public channels, and that the cuts called for by the agreement are too small and enable the plant to continue adding smog to the region. Keith Phillips, the governor's environmental policy advisor, has promised a public hearing before the deal is signed.[53]

Opponents of Centralia plant rally in State capitol

Opponents of the Centralia plant in Washington state squared off in the Olympia on February 16, 2011 over how quickly Washington's only coal plant should stop burning coal.

Environmentalists rallied support for House Bill 1825, which would transition the coal-fired plant off coal by 2015. Another measure in the Senate has set a 2020 deadline. TransAlta, which operates the plant, stated it must operate the facility until 2025 to protect jobs and provide enough time to bring cleaner resources on line.

TransAlta supporters also held a rally in Olympia to raise their concerns.[54]

TransAlta to phase out coal boilers in Washington state

It was announced on March 5, 2011 that a bill to close two coal boilers at a TransAlta's plant Centralia Power Plant, and phase out coal-fired power in Washington state is set to go to state lawmakers under a deal between the company and state Governor Christine Gregoire.

One coal boiler in Centralia will be shut no later than the end of December 2020 and the other by the end of December 2025 under terms of the reported agreement, which will allow TransAlta to sell long-term contracts for coal-fired power to help finance a transition to gas-fueled energy, a statement from the governor's office stated. The agreement will also requite TransAlta to install air pollution control technology to further reduce emissions of nitrogen oxides at its Centralia plant starting in 2013.[55]

Bill to move TransAlta from coal signed into law

On April 11, 2011 the Washington State House of Representatives voted overwhelming to approved Senate Bill 5769, which would shut down one of two boilers at the TransAlta coal-fired plant by 2020 and phase out coal-burning by 2025. TransAlta, state officials and environmental groups negotiated a deal in March 2011 to close the plant in Centralia. The measure requires the company to provide $55 million for economic development and other assistance, and to install additional air pollution controls called scrubbers to further reduce emissions of nitrogen oxides at the plant.

In exchange, TransAlta would be allowed enter into long-term agreements to sell its electricity to other utilities, which is currently prohibited by state law.

Lawmakers in the House made mostly technical changes to the bill, which passed by an 87-9 vote. The bill was later passed by the Washington State Senate.[56]

On May 3, 2011, Governor Chris Gregoire signed legislation today that will close the plant by 2025.[57] It was also reported that natural gas was being discussed as the replacement fuel for the TransAlta plant.[58]

Text of SB 5769 here

Major coal mines

There are no major coal mines in Washington.[59]

Citizen groups

Resources

References

  1. Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Mine Type, Energy Information Administration, accessed June 2008.
  2. Average Number of Employees at Underground and Surface Mines by State and Union Status, Energy Information Administration, accessed June 2008.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Existing Electric Generating Units in the United States, 2005, Energy Information Administration, accessed April 2008.
  4. Estimated Emissions for U.S. Electric Power Industry by State, 1990-2006, Energy Information Administration, 2007.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Washington Energy Consumption Information, eRedux website, accessed June 2008.
  6. State Coal Profiles, Energy Information Administration, 1994, pp. 99-106 - cached copy at CoalDiver.org
  7. Annual Coal Report, Energy Information Administration, 2007.
  8. Climate Change Law Alert: Washington State Adopts GHG Emissions Reduction Legislation, Stoel Rives LLP website, May 4, 2007.
  9. "Study says Northwest can quit coal power and save money" Dustin Bleizeffer, Trib.com, July 29, 2010.
  10. Chris Thomas, "Lawmakers Seek to 'Strip-Mine' Tax Break from WA Coal Plant" Lake Stevens Journal, January 25, 2010.
  11. "Ending Tax Loophole Considered For Largest Polluter in WA" Public News Service, March 26, 2010.
  12. "Washington lawmaker offers bill to shut Centralia plant as early as 2015" Platts.com, February 3, 2011.
  13. Groups Challenge WA Coal Plant’s Permit Renewal, Public News Service, September 30, 2009.
  14. Earthjustice Appeals TransAlta Permit, The Chronicle Online, September 29, 2009.
  15. 'Raging Grannies' Sing 'No More Coal', The Examiner, October 1, 2009.
  16. Activists push for cleaner Northwest energy, SeattlePi.com, accessed October 19, 2009.
  17. Activists push for cleaner Northwest energy Washington Beyond Coal, Sierra Club's Washington Beyond Coal site, accessed November 23, 2009.
  18. "Washington Youth Say “No” to Coal Exports on Earth Day" Scott Parkin, The Understory, April 22, 2011.
  19. "Activists Shine A Light On Washington Coal Ports" The Understory, RAN, September 15, 2011.
  20. "RE Sources may sue SSA Marine over land clearing for Cherry Point project" Bellingham Herald, October 3, 2011.
  21. "Enviro groups upset about coal trains" Associated Press, Seattle Post-Intelligencer, October 26, 2011.
  22. "Group urging Spokane opposition to coal ports" Becky Kramer, The Spokesman-Review, October 26, 2011.
  23. "13 State Senators ask State/Whatcom to expand SEPA Scope" Community Wise Bellingham, November 7, 2011.
  24. "Increased Coal Train traffic spurs resolution by Washougal City Council" Martha Martin, Silver Star Reporter, March 18, 2012.
  25. "Kennedy, activists rally in Portland against exporting coal from Northwest ports" Scott Learn, Oregonian, May 7, 2012.
  26. "Seattle City Council opposes coal-export ports" Phoung Lee, Associated Press, May 30, 2012.
  27. "At state convention, Democrats pass resolutions on coal-exporting terminals" Jared Paben, Bellingham Herald, June 4, 2012.
  28. "Northwest Coal Train Traffic Could Spike, Foes Warn" Matthew Brown, Associated Press, July 11, 2012.
  29. Coal protesters occupy state Capitol" Associated Press, August 13, 2012.
  30. "Coal protesters arrested at capital" KXLF.com, August 13, 2012.
  31. "23 Arrested in Fight to Stop Coal Exports" Nick E. Ecowatch.com, August 20, 2012.
  32. "Cowlitz County approves permits to export coal to Asia from port in Longview, Wash." Scott Lean, The Oregonian, November 23, 2010.
  33. "Mining companies aim to export coal to China through Northwest ports" Scott Learn, Oregonian, September 8, 2010.
  34. "Strategic withdrawal for Longview coal exporter" Joel Connelly, Seattle Post Intelligencer, March 15, 2011.
  35. "'When rather than if' for new West Coast coal port" Liezal Hall, MiningWeekly.com, November 12, 2010.
  36. "Coal Industry Seeks to Export Through Wash. State" Matthew Brown & Phuonge Le, Associated Press, November 16, 2010.
  37. "Longview proposed coal export terminal to have joint environmental review" The Oregonian, October 9, 2012.
  38. John Stark, "Gateway Pacific terminal at Cherry Point starts permit process" The Seattle Times, March 1, 2011.
  39. 39.0 39.1 "Bulk cargo terminal planned in Washington state" Seattle Times, March 1, 2011.
  40. "Gateway Pacific Terminal Overview" Gateway Pacific Terminal website, accessed April 19, 2011.
  41. 41.0 41.1 "Port of St. Helens potential candidate for coal export to Asia" Scott Learn, The Oregonian, June 15, 2011.
  42. "Two coal companies want to export coal through the Port of St. Helens" Scott Learn, The Oregonian, January 17, 2012.
  43. "Coal in Clatskanie: Commissioners approve 2 Port Westward export proposals" Erik Olson, The Daily News Online, January 26, 2012.
  44. "CB could become coal port again" Gail Elber, The World, July 23, 2011.
  45. "Shipping coal to Asia from Coos Bay sounds good to Peter DeFazio" Associated Press, August 17, 2012.
  46. "Coal export terminal studied at Hoquiam" Associated Press, Seattle Times, July 29, 2011.
  47. "Rail company shelving coal export plans for Hoquiam port" Associated Press, August 14, 2012.
  48. "Loaded Coal Train Derails in Columbia River Gorge" National Wildlife Federation, July 3, 2012.
  49. "Cleaning up derailed coal in Franklin County town," Associated Press, July 3, 2012.
  50. Environmental Integrity Project, "Dirty Kilowatts: America’s Most Polluting Power Plants", July 2007.
  51. Dig Deeper, Carbon Monitoring for Action database, accessed June 2008.
  52. "State's only coal power plant to reduce emissions," Seattle Post-Intelligencer, April 3, 2009.
  53. "State's secret deal with coal plant sparks outcry," Seattle Post-Intelligencer, April 7, 2009.
  54. "Opponents square off over Wash.'s coal-fired plant" Associated Press, February 15, 2011.
  55. "TransAlta to phase out coal boilers in Wash. state" Reuters, March 5, 2011.
  56. "Bill moves Wash. plant off coal by 2025" Phuong Le, Associated Press, April 11, 2011.
  57. "Washington State to Close Coal Plants, Offshore Oil Drilling Comes to Vote" SustainableBusiness.com, May 3, 2011.
  58. "Natural Gas Most Likely To Replace Coal At Big Power Plant " Tom Banse, Oregon Public Broadcast, May 1, 2011.
  59. Major U.S. Coal Mines, Energy Information Administration, accessed June 2008.

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Existing coal plants in Washington

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